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Media Resources
Legal Marriage Bibliography
from Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund

I. Gay People’s Right to Marry: Law Review Articles Since Baehr v. Lewin
  • Baehr v. Lewin, 852 P.2d 44 (Haw. 1993) (landmark decision of Hawaii Supreme Court presumptively invalidating discriminatory refusal to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples)
  • Otis R. Damslet, “Same-Sex Marriage,” 10 N.Y. Law School Journal of Human Rights 555 (1993)
  • William H. Hohengarten, “Same-Sex Marriage and the Right of Privacy,” 103 Yale Law Journal 1495 (1994)
  • Richard D. Mohr, “The Case for Gay Marriage,” 9 Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 301 (1995)
  • Jeff Stewart, “The Wedding Luau — Who Is Invited?: Hawaii, Same-Sex Marriage, and Emerging Realities,” ___ Emory Law Journal ___ (Fall 1995)
  • Erik J. Toulon, “Call the Caterer: Hawaii to Host First Same-Sex Marriages,” 3 S. Cal. Rev. of Law & Women’s Studies 109 (1993)
  • Carol T. Tully, “To Boldly Go Where No One Has Gone Before: The Legalization of Lesbian and Gay Marriages,” 1 Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services 73 (1994)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Crossing the Threshold: Equal Marriage Rights for Lesbians and Gay Men, and the Intra-Community Critique,” 21 N.Y.U. Rev. of Law & Social Change 567 (1994)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Why We Should Fight for the Freedom to Marry,” 1 J. of Gay, Lesbian & Bisexual Identity ___ (Jan. 1996) (manuscript available from Lambda)
II. Gay People’s Right to Marry: Press Articles
  • Stephen Chapman, “Gay Moms and Gay Marriage: Can We Find a Better Way?,” Chicago Tribune, Dec. 1, 1994 (“conservative” case for equal marriage rights)
  • David Dunlap, “Some States Trying to Stop Gay Marriages Before They Start,” The New York Times, March 15, 1995, p.A18 (overview of premature backlash)
  • Editors, “Same-Sex, again,” Honolulu Advertiser, July 9, 1995 (editorial urging the Hawaii courts not to delay and confuse the issue any further)
  • Peter Freiberg, “Gays Win in South Dakota, Lose in Utah,” The Washington Blade, March 3, 1995, p.1 (backlash)
  • Peter Freiberg, “Next January could be a Hot One in Hawaii,” The Washington Blade, March 31, 1995, p.21 (details of developments in Hawaii)
  • Peter Freiberg, “One in Three think Gays should have Right to Wed,” The Washington Blade, July 14, 1995, p.23 (reports the results of a poll conducted by EPIC/MRA-Mitchell Research)
  • Kimberly Griffin, “To Have and To Hold: Gay Marriage, The Next Frontier,” Windy City Times, June 2, 1994, p.1 (stories of same-sex couples)
  • Beth Harrison, “We’re Goin’ to the Chapel,” The Front Page, Nov. 25, 1994, p.3 (interview with Hawaii plaintiffs)
  • Elaine Herscher, “When Marriage Is a Tough Proposal: Women’s Suit at Heart of Debate Over Same-Sex Unions,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 15, 1995, p.1
  • Kirk Johnson, “Gay Divorce: Few Markers in This Realm,” N.Y. Times, Aug. 12, 1994, p.A20 col.1
  • Marvin Liebman, “The Issue Is Gay Marriage,” The Texas Triangle, Jan. 13, 1995, p.8
  • Eils Lotozo, “Holy Matrimony!,” Philadelphia Weekly, June 21, 1995, p.30 (cover story on how same-sex marriage has hit the mainstream)
  • Jonathan Mandell, “Gay Partners Look Forward to Marriage,” New York Newsday, June 23, 1995, p.A8 col.1 (stories of gay couples and how they are affected by the denial of their right to marry)
  • David Mastro, “Gay Marriage: promoting family and values,” The Daily Iowan, Mar. 14, 1994
  • Carol Ness, “Lesbian Couple Leads Fight For Right to Marry,” San Francisco Examiner, April 27, 1995, p.A1 (Ninia Baehr and Genora Dancel)
  • Nick Orsborn, “Married - But Not Legal,” The Texas Triangle, Apr. 27, 1995, p.15 (stories of Texas gay couples and how they are affected by the denial of their right to marry)
  • James Pinkerton, “A Conservative Argument for Gay Marriage,” Los Angeles Times, June 30, 1993, p.B7 Metro col.5
  • Jonathan Rauch, “A Pro-Gay, Pro-Family Policy,” The Wall Street Journal, Nov. 29, 1994, p.A22
  • Gabriel Rotello, “Confederate Echoes in New Gay Laws,” New York Newsday, Feb. 16, 1995, p.A36 (parallels between pre-1967 “same-race restriction” and current “different-sex restriction” on marriage)
  • Michelangelo Signorile, “Wedding Bell Blues,” Out Magazine, May 1195, p.26 (account of lesbian daughter of interracial couple and the battles for marriage rights)
  • Lyn Stoeson, “Legal Activist: Gay marriage is coming,” The Washington Blade, Dec. 9, 1994, p.16
  • Andrew Sullivan, “Here Comes the Groom,” The New Republic, Aug. 28, 1989, p.20 (“conservative” case for equal marriage rights)
  • Evan Wolfson, “No Time For A Luau,” The Advocate, July 26, 1994, p.5 (a “wake-up call” to the community and overview of marriage)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Hawaii Honeymoon,” Men’s Style, May/June 1995, p.114 (overview of marriage with focus on necessary tasks)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Altared States,” 10 Percent, May/June 1995, p.28 (overview with analogy to different-race restriction)
III. Gay & Lesbian Intra-Community Debate
  • Harlon L. Dalton, “Reflections on the Lesbian and Gay Marriage Debate,” 1 Law & Sexuality 1 (1991)
  • Nitya Duclos, “Some Complicating Thoughts on Same-Sex Marriage,” 1 Law & Sexuality 31 (1991)
  • Mary C. Dunlap, “The Lesbian and Gay Marriage Debate: A microcosm of our hopes and troubles in the nineties,” 1 Law & Sexuality 63 (1991)
  • Steven K. Homer, “Against Marriage,” 29 Harvard Civil Rights/Civil Liberties Law Rev. 505 (1994)
  • Nan D. Hunter, “Marriage, Law, and Gender: A feminist legal inquiry,” 1 Law & Sexuality 9 (1991)
  • Claudia A. Lewis, “From This Day Forward: A feminine moral discourse on homosexual marriage,” 97 Yale Law Journal 1783 (1988)
  • Nancy Polikoff, “We Will Get What We Ask For: Why legalizing gay & lesbian marriage will not ‘dismantle the legal structure of gender in every marriage,’” 79 Va. Law Rev. 1535 (1993)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Crossing The Threshold: Equal marriage rights for lesbians and gay men, and the intra-community critique,” 21 N.Y.U. Rev. of Law & Social Change 567 (1994)
IV. Nationwide Recognition/Full Faith and Credit
  • Habib Balian, “Til Death Do Us Part: Granting full faith and credit to marital status,” 68 S. Cal. Law Rev. 363
  • Jennifer Gerarda Brown, “Competitive Federalism and the Legislative Incentives to Recognize Same-Sex Marriage,” 68 So. Cal. Law Rev. 745 (1995)
  • Amy R. Brownstein, “Why Same-Sex Spouses Should Be Granted Preferential Immigration Status: Reevaluating Adams v. Howerton,” 16 Loy. L.A. Int’l & Comp. Law Journal 763 (1994)
  • Barbara J. Cox, “Same-Sex Marriage and Choice of Law: If we marry in hawaii, are we still married when we return home?,” 1994 Wisc. Law Rev. 1033
  • Joseph W. Hovermill, “A Conflict of Laws and Morals: The choice of law implications of Hawaii’s recognition of same-sex marriages,” 53 Md. Law Rev. 450 (1994)
  • Deborah M. Henson, “Will Same-Sex Marriages Be Recognized in Sister States?: Full faith and credit and due process limitations on states’ choice of law regarding the status and incidents of homosexual marriages following Hawaii’s Baehr v. Lewin,” 32 U. of Louisville Journal of Family Law 551 (1994)
  • Thomas M. Keane, “Aloha, Marriage? Constitutional and Choice-of-Law Arguments for Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages,” 47 Stanford Law Rev. 499 (1995)
  • Candace Sage, “Sister-State Recognition of Valid Same-Sex Marriages: Baehr v. Lewin — How will it play in Peoria?,” 28 Ind. Law Rev. 115 (1994)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Winning and Keeping Equal Marriage Rights: What will follow victory in Baehr v. Lewin? — A summary of legal issues” (Lambda publication)
  • Evan Wolfson & Gregory v.S. McCurdy, “‘Let No One Set Asunder:’ Full faith and credit for the validly contracted marriages of same-sex and different-sex couples” (199?)
V. Historical
  • John Boswell, “Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe” (1994)
  • John D’Emilio & Estelle B. Freedman, “Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America” (1988)
  • William N. Eskridge, Jr., “A History of Same-Sex Marriage,” 79 Va. Law Rev. 1419 (1993)
VI. Domestic Partnership/Other Family Arrangements
  • Sue N. Averill, “Desperately Seeking Status: Same-sex couples battle for employment-linked benefits,” 27 Akron Law Rev. 253 (1993)
  • John C. Beattie, “Prohibiting Marital Status Discrimination: A Proposal for the Protection of Unmarried Couples,” 42 Hastings Law Journal 1415 (1991)
  • Craig A. Bowman & Blake M. Cornish, “A More Perfect Union: A legal and social analysis of domestic partnership ordinances,” 92 Columbia Law Rev. 1164 (1992)
  • Adam Chase, “Tax Planning for Same-Sex Couples,” 72 Denver Univ. Law Rev. 359 (1995)
  • David Jefferson, “Gay Employees Win Benefits for Partners at More Corporations,” Wall Street Journal, Mar. 18, 1994, p.A1
  • Lambda Legal, “Negotiating for Equal Employment Benefits: A resource packet” (July 1994) (periodically updated)
  • Brooke Oliver, “Contracting for Cohabitation: Adapting the California statutory marriage contract to life partnership agreements between lesbian, gay or unmarried heterosexual couples,” 23 Golden Gate Univ. Law Rev. 899 (Summer 1993)
  • Note, “Non-Traditional Family Values: Providing quasi-marital rights to same-sex couples,” 13 Boston College Third World Law Journal 317 (Summer 1993)
VII. International
  • Deborah M. Henson, “A Comparative Analysis of Same-Sex Partnership Protections: Recommendations for American Reform,” 7 Intl. Journal of Law & the Family 282 (1993)
  • Lawrence Ingrassia, “Danes Don’t Debate Same-Sex Marriages, They Celebrate Them,” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 1994, p.A1 col.4
  • Lesbian and Gay Legal Rights Service, “The Bride Wore Pink: Legal recognition of our relationships,” 3 Australasian Gay and Lesbian Law Journal 67 (Oct. 1993)
  • Robin Mackenzie, “Transsexuals’ Legal Sexual Status and Same Sex Marriage in New Zealand,” 7 Otago (NZ) Law Rev. 556 (1993)
  • Shaughn Morgan, “Legal Recognition of Gay and Lesbian Relationships,” 3 Australasian Law Journal 57 (Oct. 1993)
  • Pederson, “Denmark: Homosexual marriages and new rules regarding separation and divorce,” 30 Journal of Family Law 289 (1991-92)
VIII. General Background
  • John Boswell, “Jews, Bicycle Riders, and Gay People: The determination of social consensus and its impact on minorities,” 1 Yale Journal of Law & Humanities 205 (1989)
  • Mary Ann Case, “Couples and Coupling in the Public Sphere: A comment on the legal history of the litigating for lesbian and gay rights,” 79 Va. Law Rev. 1643 (1993)
  • Andrew Koppelman, “Why Discrimination Against Lesbians and Gay Men Is Sex Discrimination,” 69 N.Y.U. Law Rev. 197 (1994)
  • Andrew Koppelman, “The Miscegenation Analogy: Sodomy law as sex discrimination,” 98 Yale Law Journal 145 (1988)
  • Sylvia Law, “Homosexuality and the Social Meaning of Gender,” 1988 Wis. Law Rev. 187
  • Samuel A. Marcosson, “The ‘Special Rights’ Canard in the Debate Over Lesbian and Gay Rights,” 9 Notre Dame. Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy 137 (1995)
  • Mark Strasser, “Family, Definitions, and the Constitution: On the Anti-Misecegenation Analogy,” 25 Suffolk Law Rev. 981 (1991)
  • Evan Wolfson, “Civil Rights, Human Rights, Gay Rights: Minorities and the Humanity of the Different,” 14 Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 21 (1991)

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund
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—— Further Resources ——
Media Resources: Legal Marriage
from Partners Task Force for Gay & Lesbian Couples

Key Marriage Articles — long list
from Partners Task Force for Gay & Lesbian Couples

Marriage and Relationships — many essays
from Independent Gay Forum, editored by Jonathan Rauch and Stephen H. Miller

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