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List of Federal Marriage Laws - 1997
from the U.S. General Accounting Office
© October 23, 2005, Demian


Searching first in 1997, the General Accounting Office located least 1,049 federal laws provide benefits, rights and privileges based on marital status. This fact appears in the following document — “GAO/OGC-97-16 Defense of Marriage Act” — from the U.S. Congress’ General Accounting Office.

While the Office claims it cannot determine the exact effects of the laws on citizens, the report shows that the federal anti-gay, anti-marriage DoMA law affects an enormous range and depth of federal acknowledgements, rights, benefits, and privileges.

The following cover letter and report may also be read in the GAO’s original PDF file:
The first, original GAO 58-page list of laws document

The second GAO report may be read here:
List of Federal Marriage Laws - 2003
GAO
United States
General Accounting Office
Washington, D.C. 20548
Office of the General Counsel

B-275860

January 31, 1997

The Honorable Henry J. Hyde
Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary
House of Representatives

Dear Mr. Chairman:
The Defense of Marriage Act[1], which became law on September 21 of last year, defines “marriage” as “a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife”; similarly it defines “spouse” as referring “only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife.” Because the Act makes both definitions apply “[i]n determining the meaning of any Act of Congress,” it potentially affects the interpretation of a wide variety of federal laws in which marital status is a factor.

In connection with the enactment of the Defense of Marriage Act, you asked us, in your September 5, 1996, letter, to identify federal laws in which benefits, rights, and privileges are contingent on marital status. Your staff agreed that we should identify more generally all those laws in the United States Code in which marital status is a factor, even though some of these laws may not directly create benefits, rights, or privileges.

To find laws that meet these criteria, we conducted searches for various words or word stems (“marr,” “spouse,” “widow,” etc.), chosen to elicit marital status, in several electronic databases that contain the text of federal laws. From the collection of laws in the United States Code that we found through those searches, we eliminated (1) laws that included one or more of our search terms but that were not relevant to your request [2] and (2) as agreed with your staff, any laws enacted after the Defense of Marriage Act. The result is a collection of 1049 federal laws classified to the United States Code in which marital status is a factor.

This collection of laws is as complete and representative as can be produced by a global electronic search of the kind we conducted, but such a search has several limitations. Most significantly, it cannot capture every individual law in the United States Code in which marital status figures. However, we believe that the probability is high that it has identified those programs in the Code in which marital status is a factor.

Because of the inherent limitations of any computer search [3] and the many ways in which the laws in the United States Code may have dealt with marital status, the only way to create an exhaustive list of laws in the Code implicating marital status would be to read and analyze the Code in its entirety. We believe that such an effort would not generate substantially more useful information than we have provided here.

A second caveat concerning our data is that they include only laws classified to the United States Code. As you know, the Code is a compendium of “general and permanent” laws. Although appropriations and annual authorizations, for example, might contain references to marital status, they are typically in effect for a single year, and therefore do not appear in the Code.

Finally, no conclusions can be drawn, from our identification of a law as one in which marital status is a factor, concerning the effect of the law on married people versus single people. A particular law may create either advantages or disadvantages for those who are married, or may apply to both married and single people. For example, those who are unmarried fare better than their married counterparts under the so-called marriage penalty provisions of the tax laws, while married couples enjoy estate tax benefits not available to the unmarried. Other laws apply both to married and single people by virtue of terms like “survivors,” “relatives,” “family,” and “household.”

The raw data produced by our searches were in a form that made them unwieldy and difficult to use. One reason for this is the sheer number of individual laws that we identified. Also, we conducted multiple searches in several databases, resulting in several separate lists in varying formats. Finally, the laws on the lists were organized as they are in the United States Code; for a reader attempting to understand what kinds of laws make marital status a factor, that organization is not consistently helpful. Some of the Code’s 50 titles contain laws on seemingly unrelated subjects. Title 42, under the broad designation “The Public Health and Welfare,” includes laws ranging from Social Security to nuclear waste disposal to civil rights and privacy protection. Conversely, closely parallel provisions may appear in different titles: benefits for most federal civil servants are in Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, but similar provisions for Foreign Service officers are in Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

To give readers a sense of the kinds of federal laws in which marital status is a factor, we classified the laws on the list into the following 13 categories[4]:

Social Security and Related Programs, Housing, and Food Stamps
Veterans’ Benefits
Taxation
Federal Civilian and Military Service Benefits
Employment Benefits and Related Laws
Immigration, Naturalization, and Aliens
Indians
Trade, Commerce, and Intellectual Property
Financial Disclosure and Conflict of Interest
Crimes and Family Violence
Loans, Guarantees, and Payments in Agriculture
Federal Natural Resources and Related Laws
Miscellaneous Laws
While we believe this classification scheme is useful for organizing the hundreds of statutes on the list, and for representing the range of federal programs and activities in which the law makes marital status relevant, it should not be regarded as definitive. Other ways of categorizing these laws would be equally valid. Moreover, the categories we use are not mutually exclusive: many laws could arguably be in a different category. A general description of each category and a few examples of the laws it contains are in enclosure I. The full lists of statutes in each category are in enclosure II.

As arranged with your staff, unless you announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this letter for 7 days after its issue date. At that time, we will make copies available on request.

If you have any questions, please call me at (202) 512-8203 or Susan Poling, Assistant General Counsel, at (202) 512-2667.

Sincerely yours,

Barry R. Bedrick
Associate General Counsel


Footnotes

[1] Public Law 104-199, 110 Stat. 2419.
[2] For example, our search for the word stem “marr,” designed to capture words such as “marriage” and “marry,” also produced references to laws mentioning bone marrow transplants, the city of Marrakesh, and proper names containing the letters “marr.”
[3] One such limitation results from the use of statutory definitions. Our search for occurrences of “spouse” would find a law defining “relative,” for purposes of a program, as including a spouse. It would not find the laws in that program that, by referring to “relative,” apply to a spouse. A search for “relative” does not solve this problem. That word is used commonly in senses unrelated to marital status (as are other terms such as “single”). A computer cannot distinguish between these senses; a lawyer would have to examine each occurrence of “relative” to determine whether it refers to marital status.
[4] The order of the categories is not significant, except that the first four are those in which marital status is most pervasive, and are the largest.

Enclosure I
Categories of Laws Involving Marital Status
January 31, 1997

CATEGORY 1 — SOCIAL SECURITY AND RELATED PROGRAMS, HOUSING, AND FOOD STAMPS

This category includes the major federal health and welfare programs, particularly those considered entitlements, such as Social Security retirement and disability benefits, food stamps, welfare, and Medicare and Medicaid.[1] Most of these laws are found in Title 42 of the United States Code, The Public Health and Welfare; food stamp legislation is in Title 7, Agriculture.

In many of these programs, recognition of the marital relationship is integral to the design of the program. For example, the law establishing the Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program (Social Security) is written in terms of the rights of husbands and wives, and widows and widowers. Once the law sets forth the basic right of an individual participant to retirement benefits, it prescribes in great detail the corresponding rights of the current or former spouse. Whether one is eligible for Social Security payments, and if so how much one receives, are both dependent on marital status. This is reflected in the provisions for what happens upon the death of a beneficiary: if certain conditions are met, then a spouse or a divorced spouse (as well as a widow or widower) has a right to payments based on the marriage, rather than on his or her own earnings.

The part of the Social Security Act that governs the OASDI program is unusual in that, unlike many other laws we have identified, it defines the terms “husband” and “wife.” It does so in terms of state law: a person is the wife or husband of an insured individual for purposes of OASDI if “the courts of the State [of domicile] … would find that such applicant and such insured individual were validly married …” or, if not, that under the state’s laws of intestate succession, the person would have the same status with respect to the individual’s property as a wife or husband, widow or widower. Those 65 or older who are eligible for Social Security retirement benefits, or who have received Social Security disability benefits for at least 2 years, are also eligible for benefits under Medicare.

The Social Security Act also authorizes the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, for the needy aged, blind, and disabled. Under SSI, both the level of income to determine eligibility and the level of benefits for those who are eligible differ, depending whether the applicant has an eligible spouse or not. SSI defines “eligible spouse” as an aged, blind, or disabled individual who is the husband or wife of another aged, blind, or disabled individual. The SSI law goes onto say that, in determining whether two individuals are husband and wife, state law will generally apply, except that if a man and a woman have been determined to be husband and wife for purpose of OASDI or, if a man and woman are found to be holding themselves out to the community as husband and wife, they are also husband and wife for purposes of SSI.

Child support enforcement is another program, also established under the Social Security Act, that contains provisions affecting spouses. Its purpose is to provide help (1) in enforcing the support obligations of absent parents to their children and to the spouse with whom the children may be living, and (2) in obtaining child and spousal support. If an obligation has been established under state law for one spouse to support another, and if the supported spouse is receiving assistance under Medicaid (see below) or AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), then a state participating in the child support enforcement program must help enforce the support obligation.

Medicaid is a jointly funded federal-state entitlement program to provide medical assistance to qualifying low-income people, including those eligible for AFDC[2] and SSI, non-AFDC low-income children and pregnant women, and low-income Medicare beneficiaries. In determining a person’s eligibility for Medicaid based on income, states may consider the spouse’s financial responsibility for the person, but may not consider anyone else’s financial responsibility. Spouses are considered “essential” to individuals receiving Medicaid benefits, and are therefore eligible for medical assistance themselves. The Medicaid statute also prescribes how to account for the income and resources of the spouse of an institutionalized person, for purposes of determining that person’s eligibility for benefits.

In the broad federal program of housing assistance for low-income families the definition of “families” takes marital status into account. For some purposes, the term means families whose heads, or their spouses, are elderly, near-elderly, or disabled. However, the same provision includes a definition of families — “2 or more elderly persons, near-elderly persons, or persons with disabilities living together” — that does not require any marital relationship. The same law makes marital status a factor in determining whether a family qualifies for assistance in terms of income. Applicants may exclude $550 for each family member who is under 18, or is disabled or handicapped or a full-time student, but this exclusion does not apply to “the head of the household or his spouse.” Also to be excluded is any payment by a member of the family for the support and maintenance of a spouse or former spouse who does not live in the household.

In the National Affordable Housing program, marital status also is significant. The program is intended to assist families, and particularly “first-time homebuyers,” in buying homes. “First-time homebuyer” is defined, in part, as an individual “and his or her spouse” who have not owned a home during the preceding 3 years.

In the Food Stamp program (also to be broadly affected by welfare reform), marital status is not central, but does play a role. Eligibility for benefits under the program is determined on the basis of households, and “household” includes not only spouses who live together, but also groups of individuals who live together and customarily buy and prepare food together.

CATEGORY 2 — VETERANS’ BENEFITS

Veterans’ benefits, which are codified in Title 38 of the United States Code, include pensions, indemnity compensation for service-connected deaths, medical care, nursing home care, right to burial in veterans’ cemeteries, educational assistance, and housing. Husbands or wives of veterans have many rights and privileges by virtue of the marital relationship.

A surviving spouse or child of a veteran is entitled to receive monthly dependency and indemnity compensation payments when the veteran’s death was service-connected, and to receive a monthly pension when the veteran’s death was not service-connected. If it is discovered that a veteran’s marriage is invalid, the purported marriage may nevertheless be deemed valid under certain circumstances, as long as a “real” widow or widower does not ask for benefits.

Veterans who have at least a 30 percent disability are entitled to additional disability compensation if they have dependents. For this purpose a spouse is considered a dependent. A veteran’s spouse may also receive compensation if a veteran disappears. On the other hand, a spouse’s estate is considered along with the veteran’s when the Secretary of Veterans Affairs determines whether it is reasonable that some part of the veteran’s assets be used for the veteran’s maintenance and whether the Secretary should discontinue paying the pension.

The spouses of certain veterans are entitled to medical care provided by the government. In determining, based on income and assets, whether a veteran has the ability to defray necessary home care and medical expenses, the property of the spouse of the veteran is included as an asset of the veteran. Spouses of veterans may be beneficiaries of National Service Life Insurance, and are also eligible for interment in national cemeteries if the veteran is eligible. The surviving spouse of a veteran who died of a service-connected disability is entitled to educational assistance for up to 45 months, and to job counseling, training, and placement services. Spouses and widows or widowers of certain veterans also enjoy preferences in federal employment.

CATEGORY 3 — TAXATION

The distinction between married and unmarried status is pervasive in federal tax law; this is one of the largest categories, with 179 provisions. Tax law does not define such terms as “husband,” “wife,” or “married.”

Marital status figures in federal tax law in provisions as basic as those giving married taxpayers the option to file joint or separate income tax returns. It is also seen in the related provisions prescribing different tax consequences depending on whether a taxpayer is married filing jointly, married filing separately, unmarried but the head of a household, or unmarried and not the head of a household.

The different treatment in the tax code of married couples and single individuals gives rise to one of the most contentious tax policy issues, the so-called marriage penalty (and its counterpart, the marriage bonus). This issue comes into play in connection with income tax rates, the treatment of capital losses, credits for the elderly and disabled, taxation of Social Security benefits, and a number of other provisions of the tax code. In our report, Tax Administration: Income Tax Treatment of Married and Single Individuals,[3] we identified 59 provisions in income tax law under which tax liability depends in part on whether a taxpayer is married or single.

Marital status also plays a key role in the estate and gift tax laws and in the part of the tax code dealing with taxation on the sale of property. For estate tax purposes, property transferred to one spouse as the result of the death of another is deductible for purposes of determining the value of the decedent’s estate. Gifts from one spouse to another are deductible for purposes of the gift tax. Gifts from one spouse to a third party are deemed to be from both spouses equally. The law permits transfers of property from one spouse to another (or to a former spouse if the transfer is incident to a divorce) without any recognition of gain or loss for tax purposes. These provisions permit married couples to transfer substantial sums to one another, and to third parties, without tax liability in circumstances in which single people would not enjoy the same privilege.

CATEGORY 4 — FEDERAL CIVILIAN AND MILITARY SERVICE BENEFITS

This category includes laws dealing with current and retired federal officers and employees, members of the Armed Forces, elected officials, and judges, in which marital status is a factor. Typically these laws address the various health, leave, retirement, survivor, and insurance benefits provided by the United States to those in federal service and their families.

Over 270 of the 1049 provisions we found fall in this category. They appear primarily in Title 5 of the United States Code, Government Organization and Employees, for civilian employees, and Title 10, Armed Forces, for military members. However, parallel provisions are found in 19 other titles covering, for example, Foreign Service officers (Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse), Central Intelligence Agency employees (Title 50, War and National Defense), Lighthouse Service employees (Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters), and members of the Coast Guard (Title 14, Coast Guard).

Marital status is a factor in these laws in many ways. Among the laws governing federal employees and officers, it figures in the following provisions: a law establishing health benefits or survivor benefits for spouses; a law prescribing the order of precedence in payment of final paychecks and life insurance benefits of employees or officers who die without having designated a beneficiary; and a law determining the rights of current or former spouses to a retirement annuity after the death of an employee.

In addition, under provisions for reimbursement of employees’ expenses in connection with a government-ordered relocation, spouses are eligible for per diem allowances or subsistence payments. Federal civil service employees are entitled to unpaid leave in order to care for a spouse with a serious health problem, and an employee disabled by work-related injuries receives augmented compensation if he or she is married.

A different set of laws governs military personnel and their families. Some of the provisions unique to military service include: employment assistance and transitional services for spouses of members being separated from military service; continued commissary privileges for dependents, including spouses, of members separated for spousal or child abuse, and the right of minor spouses of overseas military personnel to free secondary education through the Defense Department school system.

CATEGORY 5 — EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS AND RELATED LAWS

Marital status comes into play in many different ways in federal laws relating to employment in the private sector. Most such laws appear in Title 29 of the United States Code, Labor. However, others are in Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining; Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters; and Title 45, Railroads.

This category includes laws that address the rights of employees under employer-sponsored employee benefit plans; that provide for continuation of employer-sponsored health benefits after events like the death or divorce of the employee; and that give employees the right to unpaid leave in order to care for a seriously ill spouse. In addition, Congress has extended special benefits in connection with certain occupations, like mining and public safety. The spouse of a coal miner who dies of black lung disease is entitled to benefits, for example. The surviving spouse of a public safety officer killed in the line of duty is eligible for a death benefit of up to $100,000.

Spouses are sometimes excluded from coverage as employees under certain laws. For example, under the National Labor Relations Act, an individual working for his or her spouse does not come within the definition of “employee,” and therefore does not have the right, available under the Act to other employees, to organize or to engage in collective bargaining. If the only regular employees of a business are the owner and his or her spouse, then the business is not subject to regulation of wages and hours under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA). Similarly, the spouse or other family member of an employer working in agriculture is not covered under FLSA requirements like minimum wage.

Some laws protect the interests of one spouse when the other becomes eligible for some benefit. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act prohibits an employee from changing beneficiaries in a retirement plan or from waiving the joint and survivor annuity form of retirement benefit, without the written consent of his or her spouse.

The Railroad Retirement Act confers many rights on retired railroad employees and their spouses. Spouses may be eligible for annuities and lump sum benefits. Congress has also enacted a workers’ compensation law for longshore and harbor workers that establishes survivor benefits for spouses.

CATEGORY 6 — IMMIGRATION, NATURALIZATION, AND ALIENS

This category includes laws governing the conditions under which noncitizens may enter and remain in the United States, be deported, or become citizens. Most are found in Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

The law gives special consideration to spouses of immigrants and aliens in a wide variety of circumstances. Under immigration law, aliens may receive special status by virtue of their employment, and that treatment may extend to their spouses. For example, the spouses of aliens who come to the United States on a temporary basis (to work as registered nurses, seasonal agricultural workers, or in certain specialty occupations), and who meet other criteria, are not subject to the worldwide numerical limitations on levels of immigration. Also, spouses of aliens granted asylum can be given the same status if they accompany or join their spouses.

Spouses of aliens do not enjoy favored immigration status in all circumstances. Posthumous citizenship is authorized for noncitizen members of the armed forces who die during hostilities, but not for their spouses. When the government revokes the citizenship of someone because it was obtained through misconduct, and that person’s spouse derived his or her citizenship from the marriage, the spouse’s citizenship will also be revoked.

Some provisions of immigration law are designed to prevent misuse of marital status. The law calls for termination of the permanent resident status of an alien granted on the basis of marriage, if it is determined that the marriage was for the purpose of procuring the alien’s entry to the United States, or if the marriage is annulled or terminated (other than through the death of a spouse) within two years.

The Congress recently limited the eligibility of qualified aliens for certain federal programs — such as SSI, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (which will replace AFDC), and Social Services block grants — but it made a few exceptions, one of which directly benefits spouses of veterans. Aliens who are serving on active duty in the Armed Forces or who are honorably discharged veterans, and their spouses, remain eligible for these benefits in the same manner as a citizen. Federal law also provides that the incomes of the sponsor of an immigrant, and of the sponsor’s spouse, are to be taken into account in determining the immigrant’s eligibility for means-tested public benefits.

CATEGORY 7 — INDIANS

The indigenous peoples of the United States have long had a special legal relationship with the federal government through treaties and laws that are classified to Title 25, Indians. Various laws set out the rights to tribal property of white men marrying Indian women, or of Indian women marrying white men, the evidence that is required, and the rights of children born of marriages between white men and Indian women.[4]

The law also establishes Indians’ rights to develop descent and distribution rights regarding their property as long as they include certain provisions. Most relevant to this discussion is the right of a surviving spouse who is neither an Indian nor a member of the deceased spouse’s tribe to elect a life estate in property that he or she is occupying at the time of the death of the other spouse. Another law governing rights of Navajo and Hopi Indians gives relocation benefits to spouses who relinquish their life estates.

Health services can also be made available to otherwise ineligible spouses of an eligible Indian if all such spouses are made eligible by an appropriate resolution of the governing body of the tribe. Health professionals seeking positions in the Indian Health Service and their spouses may be reimbursed for actual and reasonable expenses incurred in traveling to and from their homes to an area in which they could be assigned to allow them to evaluate the area with respect to the assignment.

CATEGORY 8 — TRADE, COMMERCE, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

This category includes provisions concerning foreign or domestic business and commerce, from the following titles of the United States Code: Bankruptcy, Title 11; Banks and Banking, Title 12; Commerce and Trade, Title 15; Copyrights, Title 17; and Customs Duties, Title 19.

Federal law prescribes the right of debtors to seek bankruptcy protection and the rights of creditors when their debtors adopt that strategy. It expressly permits spouses to file jointly for bankruptcy protection. This may benefit both the debtors and their creditors: the married couple pays only one filing fee and creditors file only one claim.

Bankruptcy law prescribes how to distribute the assets of a bankrupt person, assigns specific priorities to different classes of creditors, and permits a bankrupt debtor to be “discharged” (i.e., released) from the obligation to repay certain debts. A former spouse of the debtor making a claim in a bankruptcy proceeding for payments pursuant to a divorce decree or separation agreement is given a higher priority than some other creditors. Also, a discharge in bankruptcy generally does not relieve a debtor of the obligation to pay alimony or support to a spouse or former spouse in connection with a divorce decree or separation agreement.

The National Housing Act addresses the rights of mortgage borrowers. Banks often use a so-called due-on-sale clause in mortgage agreements that permits them to declare the loan payable in full if the borrower sells the property without their consent. The Act prohibits use of the due-on-sale clause in case of transfers of residential property from one spouse to another.

For some purposes, the laws regulating investment companies and advisers apply not only to the advisers themselves, but also to what the law terms “interested persons.” “Interested persons” is defined to include the spouses of certain persons, of their parents, and of their children.

The Consumer Credit Protection Act regulates some aspects of garnishment of wages, a legal process whereby a creditor collects a debt by having the debtor’s employer pay part of the debtor’s wages directly to the creditor. The Act establishes that at most 25 percent of the disposable earnings of an individual can be withheld through garnishment. However, if the purpose of the garnishment is to enforce an order for the support of a spouse, the maximum is 60 percent or, if the wage earner is supporting a spouse (not the former spouse for whose benefit the support order was issued), 50 percent.

The Copyright Act gives renewal rights and termination rights, in some circumstances, to the widow or widower of the creator of a copyrighted work. The law defines “widow or widower” as the creator’s surviving spouse under the law of the creator’s domicile at the time of his or her death, whether or not the spouse subsequently remarries.

The amount of customs duty on imported merchandise depends on its value. Under the law, the actual transaction value — that is, how much the buyer paid the seller — may be used to establish value if the buyer and seller are not “related.” For this purpose, spouses are deemed to be related. Also, certain countries that deny or restrict the ability of their citizens to emigrate in order to join “close relatives” in the United States can be penalized by the imposition of restrictions on their trade with the United States. “Close relative,” for purposes of this law, includes a spouse.

Under the Fresh Cut Flowers and Fresh Cut Greens Promotion and Information Act of 1993, the federal government provides a mechanism for financing programs to strengthen the market for cut flowers and greens, through an assessment of “handlers” of these products whose annual sales exceed $750,000. Marital status comes into play in determining whether a handler meets the $750,000 threshold: for this purpose, sales by one spouse are attributed to the other.

CATEGORY 9 — FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE AND CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Federal law imposes obligations on Members of Congress, employees or officers of the federal government, and members of the boards of directors of some government-related or government-chartered entities, to prevent actual or apparent conflicts of interest. These individuals are required to disclose publicly certain gifts, interests, and transactions. Many of these requirements, which are found in 16 different titles of the United States Code, apply also to the individual’s spouse.

The law regulates the conditions under which gifts from foreign governments and international organizations may be accepted by spouses of employees of the Postal Service, the Postal Rate Commission, certain government contractors, employees of the District of Columbia government, members of the uniformed services, Members of Congress, the President, and the Vice President. Employees of executive, legislative, and judicial agencies may not appoint relatives, including spouses, to agencies in which they serve or exercise control. The spouses of members of the Senate may not accept, in any calendar year, gifts worth more than $250, without getting a waiver.

Elsewhere in the Code are rules intended to prevent conflicts of interest on the part of members of various councils and boards. For instance, members of the boards of directors of the National Sheep Industry Improvement Center and the Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation are prohibited from participating in any matter pending before either board in which a spouse holds an interest. The law governing the members of Regional Fishery Management Councils is somewhat different. Members are required to disclose and make available for public inspection any financial interests they or their spouses might have in an activity that the councils might undertake.

Another variation in the treatment of conflict of interest involving spouses appears in connection with the National Foundation for Biomedical Research. Instead of prescribing conflict of interest rules for the Foundation, the Congress directed it to devise its own standards. However, those standards must ensure that officers, employees and agents of the Foundation (including members of the Board), and their spouses, avoid encumbrances that could result in a financial conflict of interest or a divided allegiance.

CATEGORY 10 — CRIMES AND FAMILY VIOLENCE

This category includes laws that implicate marriage in connection with criminal justice or family violence. The nature of these provisions varies greatly. Some deal with spouses as victims of crimes, others with spouses as perpetrators. These laws are found primarily in Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, but some, dealing with crime prevention and family violence, are in Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Attempting to influence a United States official through threats directed at a spouse is a federal crime, as are killing, or attempting to kill, foreign officials or their spouses, or threatening to kill certain persons protected by the Secret Service, such as major presidential candidates and their spouses.

Under federal criminal statutes, spouses and others have some protections against domestic violence. It is a federal crime for a person to travel across a state line with the intent to injure a spouse or “intimate partner” if that person intentionally commits a crime of violence and causes bodily injury to the spouse or intimate partner. The term “spouse or intimate partner” is broadly defined to include a former spouse, someone who “shares a child in common” with the abuser, and someone who “cohabits or has cohabited with the abuser as a spouse.”

In some cases, marriage can be a factor in triggering criminal liability. For example, a widow’s or widower’s entitlement to federal employee survivor payments ceases upon remarriage; such a widow or widower who remarries and continues to accept payment may, if found guilty, be fined or imprisoned.

Claiming marital status that does not exist can also be a crime. Falsely representing oneself to be the spouse or surviving spouse of an individual in order to elicit information about the Social Security number, date of birth, employment, wages, or benefits of that individual, is a felony.

Comprehensive crime control legislation directed the Attorney General to study the means by which abusive spouses obtain information concerning the addresses or locations of estranged or former spouses, despite the desire of the victims to have the information withheld. Congress also has charged the National Commission on Crime Prevention and Control to evaluate the adequacy of federal and state laws on sexual assault and the need for a more uniform statutory response to sex offenses. This mandate specifically addresses sexual assaults and other sex offenses committed by offenders who are known, or related by blood or marriage, to the victim.

Criminal justice grants are given to encourage arrest of domestic violence offenders; “domestic violence” includes an act of violence by a current or former spouse. Another provision gives nationals of the United States who are victims of acts of terrorism committed outside the United States, and their survivors, including spouses, a statutory right to bring a civil action for treble damages.

CATEGORY 11 — LOANS, GUARANTEES, AND PAYMENTS IN AGRICULTURE

Under many federal loan programs, a spouse’s income, business interests, or assets are taken into account for purposes of determining a person’s eligibility to participate in the program. In other instances, marital status is a factor in determining the amount of federal assistance to which a person is entitled, or the repayment schedule.

Education loan programs are found primarily in Title 20, Education; housing loan programs for veterans are found in Title 38, Veterans’ Benefits. Title 7, Agriculture, includes provisions governing agricultural price supports and loan programs that are affected by the spousal relationship.

Under the federal family education loan program, the income and assets of an independent student’s spouse are attributed to the student for purposes of determining whether the student is eligible for a loan and, if so, the amount. Married couples may consolidate their separate student loans into one if they agree to be jointly and severally liable for repayment of the consolidated loan, without regard either to the amounts of the respective loan obligations to be consolidated or to any subsequent change in their marital status. Under the federal direct student loan program, the Secretary of Education, in order to determine the annual repayment amount when repayment is contingent on the borrower’s income, may obtain information regarding the income not only of the borrower but also of the borrower’s spouse. Repayment schedules are generally based on the adjusted gross income of both spouses.

Many of the laws governing veterans’ benefits implicate marital status. Eligibility for assistance in borrowing for housing extends to the surviving spouses of veterans who die from a service-connected disability, and to the spouses of certain veterans who, for more than 90 days, have been missing in action, captured by hostile forces, or forcibly detained by a foreign government.

The laws governing agriculture include provisions for price supports and loan programs that are affected by marital status. For example, the law limits the amount of certain crop support payments that any one person can receive. For this purpose, a husband and wife are considered to be one person, except to the extent each may have owned property individually before the marriage. Also, agricultural loans for real estate, operating expenses, and emergencies may be made to “family farms,” defined as those farms in which a majority interest is held by individuals related by marriage or blood.

CATEGORY 12 — FEDERAL NATURAL RESOURCES AND RELATED LAWS

Federal law gives special rights to spouses in connection with a variety of transactions involving federal lands and other federal property. These transactions include purchase and sale of land by the federal government and lease by the government of water and mineral rights.

When the government purchases land for national battlefields, monuments, seashores, or parks, the law commonly allows those from whom the land is purchased and their spouses to continue to use and occupy it during their lifetimes. For example, those owning houses (and their spouses) when the Stones River National Battlefield and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore were created have life estates in the land. Although these laws affect relatively few individuals, we found more than 40 such provisions in Title 16, Conservation.

In addition to playing a role under these provisions for the government to buy land, spousal relationship has also been a factor in determining priorities among potential buyers when the government is selling federal lands. For example, when Congress decided in 1955 to terminate ownership of land used by the Atomic Energy Commission and sell it to local entities and private parties, it generally barred any transfer of priorities for purchase, but allowed a husband and wife to exercise a priority in their joint names.

The marital relationship may affect whether an individual can be considered a surface mine owner with whom the Secretary of Labor can negotiate a lease. To be designated a surface mine owner, an individual must hold legal or equitable title to the land for a 3-year period and his or her principal residence must be on the land. In computing the 3-year period, the Secretary may include periods during which a relative by blood or marriage, including a spouse, owned the land.

Under laws governing reclamation and irrigation of lands by the federal government, the basic unit of ownership is 160 irrigable acres. Under certain conditions, if the death of a spouse causes lands in private ownership to become excess lands (having more than 160 acres) but those lands were eligible to receive water from a project under the Federal reclamation laws without a recordable contract, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to furnish water to them, without requiring the contract, as long as the lands are owned by the surviving spouse. If the surviving spouse remarries, the exception no longer applies, and lands in excess of 160 irrigable acres are appraised in the usual manner.

CATEGORY 13 — MISCELLANEOUS

This category comprises laws that do not fit readily in any of the other categories and that in our judgment did not warrant a separate category. It is a heterogeneous mix of provisions from 14 titles of the United States Code.

Fourteen statutes in the Code that prohibit discrimination on the basis of marital status are listed in this category. For example, such discrimination is prohibited in executive agencies, and is unlawful for a creditor in private financial transactions.

This category includes the laws chartering various patriotic societies, such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, that have as one of their purposes to assist the widows and children of servicemen or others. The Gold Star Wives of America and Navy Wives Clubs of America have one of our search terms in their titles.

We also included in this category laws related to the federal financing of presidential election campaigns. To be eligible for federal funds, candidates may not spend more than $50,000 of their own money or that of members of their immediate families for their campaigns. A spouse or a close relative’s spouse is deemed to be a member of the candidate’s immediate family for this purpose.


Footnotes

[1] The recently enacted welfare reform bill, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, greatly affected some of the provisions in this category, but the changes are not generally effective until July 1997. Where both the old and new provisions appear in the United States Code, we have included both — the ones in effect until July 1997 and the ones that take effect thereafter — in Enclosure II.
[2] Under welfare reform, AFDC will be replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families in July 1997. States will have the option of terminating Medicaid benefits for individuals who refuse to work.
[3] GAO/GGD-96-175, September 3, 1996.
[4] The laws in this category dealing with marriage that use the terms “Indian” and “white” are more than 100 years old, and have not been amended since their enactment in 1888.

Tables of Laws in the United States Code Involving Marital Status, by Category

Category 1-Social Security and Related Programs, Housing, and Food Stamps

Title 7-Agriculture
      Chapter 5-Food Stamp Program
  2012   Definitions
  2014   Eligible households
  2020   Administration
  2030   Washington Family Independence Demonstration Project
  2031   Food stamp portion of Minnesota Family Investment Plan

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 7-Social Security 
           Subchapter II-Federal Old-Age, Survivors, And Disability 
           Insurance Benefits
  402    Old-age and survivors insurance benefit payments
  403    Reduction of insurance benefits
  404    Overpayments and underpayments
  405    Evidence, procedure, and certification for payments
  409    "Wages" defined
  410    Definitions relating to employment
  411    Definitions relating to self-employment
  413    Quarter and quarter of coverage
  415    Computation of primary insurance amount
  416    Additional definitions
  422    Rehabilitation services
  423    Disability insurance benefit payments
  425    Additional rules relating to benefits based on disability
  426    Entitlement to hospital insurance benefits
  426-1  End stage renal disease program
  427    Transitional insured status for purposes of old-age and 
         survivors benefits
  428    Benefits at age 72 for certain uninsured individuals
           Subchapter IV-Grants To States For Aid And Services To 
           Needy Families With Children And For Child-Welfare Services
                Part A-Aid To Families With Dependent Children 
                [Effective until July 1, 1997]
  602    State plans for aid and services to needy families with 
         children; contents; approval by Secretary; records and 
         reports; treatment of earned income advances 
  606    Definitions
  607    Dependent children of unemployed parents  
  615    Attribution of income and resources of sponsor and spouse to 
         alienPart A-Block Grants To States For Temporary Assistance
		 For Needy Families [Effective on July 1, 1997]
  601    Purpose   
  604    Use of grants
  607    Mandatory work requirements 
  608    Prohibitions; requirements   
  611    Data collection and reporting   
  613    Research, evaluations, and national studies 
                Part D-Child Support And Establishment Of Paternity
  651    Authorization of appropriations
  652    Duties of Secretary
  653    Federal Parent Locator Service
  654    State plan for child and spousal support
  659    Enforcement of individual's legal obligations to provide 
         child support or make alimony payments
  661    Regulations pertaining to garnishments [Public Law 104-193 
         provides for repeal of this section, effective February 22, 
         1997.]
  662    Definitions
  664    Collection of past-due support from Federal tax refunds
  665    Allotments from pay for child and spousal support owed by 
         members of uniformed services on active duty
  666    Requirement of statutorily prescribed procedures to improve 
         effectiveness of child support enforcement
                Part E-Federal Payments For Foster Care And Adoption 
                Assistance
  679a   National Adoption Information Clearinghouse
           Subchapter V-Maternal And Child Health Services Block Grant
  710    Separate program for abstinence education
           Subchapter VII-Administration
  907a   National Commission on Social Security
           Subchapter XI-General Provisions, Peer Review, And 
           Administrative Simplification 
                Part A-General Provisions
  1319   Federal participation in payments for repairs to home owned 
         by recipient of aid or assistance
  1320a-6Adjustments in SSI benefits on account of retroactive 
         benefits under subchapter II
  1320b-1Notification of Social Security claimant with respect to 
         deferred vested benefits
  1320b-9National Commission on Children
           Subchapter XVI-Supplemental Security Income For Aged, 
           Blind, And Disabled
                Part A-Determination Of Benefits
  1382   Eligibility for benefits
  1382a  Income; earned and unearned income defined; exclusions from 
         income
  1382b  Resources
  1382c  Definitions  1382dRehabilitation services for blind and 
         disabled individuals
  1382g  Payments to State for operation of supplementation program
  1382h  Benefits for individuals who perform substantial gainful 
         activity despite severe medical impairment
  1382j  Attribution of sponsor's income and resources to aliens
                Part B-Procedural And General Provisions
  1383   Procedure for payment of benefits
  1383c  Eligibility for medical assistance of aged, blind, or 
         disabled individuals under State's medical assistance plan
           Subchapter XVIII-Health Insurance For Aged And Disabled
                Part A-Hospital Insurance Benefits For Aged And 
                Disabled
  1395i-2Hospital insurance benefits for uninsured elderly individuals 
         not otherwise eligible
                Part B-Supplementary Medical Insurance Benefits For 
                Aged And Disabled
  1395p  Enrollment periods
  1395r  Amount of premiums for individuals enrolled under this part
  1395s  Payment of premiums
                Part C-Miscellaneous Provisions
  1395y  Exclusions from coverage and medicare as secondary payer
  1395gg Overpayment on behalf of individuals and settlement of claims 
         for benefits on behalf of deceased individuals
  1395mm Payments to health maintenance organizations and competitive 
         medical plans
           Subchapter XIX-Grants To States For Medical Assistance 
           Programs
  1396a  State plans for medical assistance
  1396b  Payment to States
  1396d  Definitions
  1396p  Liens, adjustments and recoveries, and transfers of assets
  1396r  Requirements for nursing facilities
  1396r-5Treatment of income and resources for certain 
         institutionalized spouses
  1396u-1Assuring coverage for certain low-income families
  1396v  References to laws directly affecting medicaid program
      Chapter 8-Low-Income Housing
           Subchapter I-General Program Of Assisted Housing
  1437a  Rental payments
      Chapter 8A-Slum Clearance, Urban Renewal, And Farm Housing
           Subchapter III-Farm Housing
  1471   Financial assistance by Secretary of Agriculture
      Chapter 32-Third Party Liability For Hospital And Medical Care
  2651   Recovery by United States
      Chapter 130-National Affordable Housing 
           Subchapter I-General Provisions And Policies
  12704  Definitions
  12713  Eligibility under first-time homebuyer programs
      Subchapter III-National Homeownership Trust Demonstration
  12852  Assistance for first-time homebuyers
  12854  Definitions
           Subchapter IV-Hope For Homeownership Of Multifamily And
           Single Family Homes
                Part B-Hope For Homeownership Of Single Family Homes
  12896  Definitions

Category 2-Veterans' Benefits

Title 5-Government Organization And Employees
      Part III-Employees
           Subpart A-General Provisions
                Chapter 21-Definitions
  2108   Veteran; disabled veteran; preference eligible

Title 38-Veterans' Benefits
      Part I-General Provisions
           Chapter 1-General
  101    Definitions
  102    Dependent parents
  103    Special provisions relating to marriages
  113    Treatment of certain programs under sequestration procedures
           Chapter 3-Department Of Veterans Affairs
  306    Under Secretary for Health
           Chapter 5-Authority And Duties Of The Secretary
                Subchapter I-General Authorities
  503    Administrative error; equitable relief
  511    Decisions of the Secretary; finality
      Part II-General Benefits
           Chapter 11-Compensation For Service-Connected Disability Or 
           Death 
                Subchapter I-General  
  1102   Special provisions relating to surviving spouses
                Subchapter II-Wartime Disability Compensation
  1115   Additional compensation for dependents
  1116   Presumptions of service connection for diseases associated 
         with exposure to certain herbicide agents
                Subchapter III-Wartime Death Compensation
  1121   Basic entitlement
  1122   Rates of wartime death compensation
                Subchapter V-Peacetime Death Compensation
  1141   Basic entitlement
                Subchapter VI-General Compensation Provisions
  1158   Disappearance
           Chapter 13-Dependency And Indemnity Compensation For 
           Service-Connected Deaths
                Subchapter I-General  
  1302   Determination of pay grade
  1304   Special provisions relating to surviving spouses
                Subchapter II-Dependency And Indemnity Compensation
  1310   Deaths entitling survivors to dependency and indemnity 
         compensation
  1311   Dependency and indemnity compensation to a surviving spouse
  1312   Benefits in certain cases of in-service or service-connected 
         deaths
  1313   Dependency and indemnity compensation to children  
         1314Supplemental dependency and indemnity compensation to 
         children
  1315   Dependency and indemnity compensation to parents
  1316   Dependency and indemnity compensation in cases of prior 
         deaths
  1317   Restriction on payments under this chapter
  1318   Benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally 
         disabled at time of death
                Subchapter III-Certifications
  1322   Certifications with respect to social security entitlement
           Chapter 15-Pension For Non-Service-Connected Disability Or 
           Death Or For Service
                Subchapter I-General
  1503   Determinations with respect to annual income
  1505   Payment of pension during confinement in penal institutions
  1506   Resource reports and overpayment adjustments 
  1507   Disappearance
                Subchapter II-Veterans' Pensions
                     Non-Service-Connected Disability Pension
  1521   Veterans of a period of war
  1522   Net worth limitation
                Subchapter III-Pensions To Surviving Spouses And 
                Children
                     Wars Before World War I
  1532   Surviving spouses of Civil War veterans
  1533   Children of Civil War veterans
  1534   Surviving spouses of Indian War veterans
  1535   Children of Indian War veterans
  1536   Surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans
  1537   Children of Spanish-American War veterans
  1541   Surviving spouses of veterans of a period of war
  1542   Children of veterans of a period of war
  1543   Net worth limitation
           Chapter 17-Hospital, Nursing Home, Domiciliary, And Medical 
           Care
                Subchapter I-General
  1701   Definitions
                Subchapter II-Hospital, Nursing Home, Or Domiciliary 
                Care And Medical Treatment
  1713   Medical care for survivors and dependents of certain veterans
                Subchapter III-Miscellaneous Provisions Relating To 
                Hospital And Nursing Home Care And Medical Treatment 
                Of Veterans
  1722   Determination of inability to defray necessary expenses; 
         income thresholds
  1729   Recovery by the United States of the cost of certain care and 
         services
           Chapter 19-Insurance
                Subchapter I-National Service Life Insurance
  1901   Definitions
  1916   Insurance which matured before August 1, 1946  
         1918 Assignments
  1922   Service disabled veterans' insurance
                Subchapter II-United States Government Life Insurance
  1953   Assignments
                Subchapter III-Servicemen's Group Life Insurance
  1965   Definitions
  1970   Beneficiaries; payment of insurance
           Chapter 23-Burial Benefits
  2307   Death from service-connected disability
           Chapter 24-National Cemeteries And Memorials
  2402   Persons eligible for interment in national cemeteries
      Part III-Readjustment And Related Benefits
           Chapter 30-All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance 
           Program
                Subchapter II-Basic Educational Assistance
  3017   Death benefit
           Chapter 32-Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational 
           Assistance
                Subchapter II-Eligibility; Contributions; And Matching 
                Fund
  3224   Death of participant
           Chapter 34-Veterans' Educational Assistance
                Subchapter I-Purpose-Definitions
  3452   Definitions
                Subchapter V-Special Assistance For The Educationally 
                Disadvantaged
  3492   Tutorial assistance
           Chapter 35-Survivors' And Dependents' Educational 
           Assistance
                Subchapter I-Definitions
  3500   Purpose
  3501   Definitions

                Subchapter II-Eligibility And Entitlement
  3511   Duration of educational assistance
  3512   Periods of eligibility
                Subchapter IV-Payments To Eligible Persons
  3534   Apprenticeship or other on-job training; correspondence 
         courses
           Chapter 36-Administration Of Educational Benefits   
           Subchapter II-Miscellaneous Provisions
  3680   Payment of educational assistance or subsistence allowances
  3686   Correspondence courses
           Chapter 41-Job Counseling, Training, And Placement Service 
           For Veterans
  4101   Definitions
      Part IV-General Administrative Provisions
           Chapter 51-Claims, Effective Dates, And Payments
                Subchapter I-Claims
  5101   Claims and forms  5105Joint applications for social security 
         and dependency and indemnity compensation
                Subchapter II-Effective Dates
  5110   Effective dates of awards
  5111   Commencement of period of payment
  5112   Effective dates of reductions and discontinuances
                Subchapter III-Payment Of Benefits
  5120   Payment of benefits; delivery
  5121   Payment of certain accrued benefits upon death of a 
         beneficiary
  5123   Rounding down of pension rates
  5124   Acceptance of claimant's statement as proof of relationship
           Chapter 53-Special Provisions Relating To Benefits
  5303A  Minimum active-duty service requirement
  5304   Prohibition against duplication of benefits
  5307   Apportionment of benefits
  5310   Payment of benefits for month of death
  5311   Prohibition of certain benefit payments
  5313   Limitation on payment of compensation and dependency and 
         indemnity compensation to persons incarcerated for conviction 
         of a felony
           Chapter 55-Minors, Incompetents, And Other Wards
  5502   Payments to and supervision of fiduciaries
  5503   Hospitalized veterans and estates of incompetent 
         institutionalized veterans
           Chapter 61-Penal And Forfeiture Provisions
  6103   Forfeiture for fraud
      Part V-Boards, Administrations, And Services
           Chapter 72-United States Court Of Veterans Appeals
                Subchapter V-Retirement And Survivors Annuities
  7297   Survivor annuities
           Chapter 73-Veterans Health Administration-Organization And 
           Functions
                Subchapter III-Protection Of Patient Rights
  7332   Confidentiality of certain medical records
           Chapter 74-Veterans Health Administration-Personnel
                Subchapter II-Collective Bargaining And Personnel 
                Administration
  7426   Retirement rights
      Part VI-Acquisition And Disposition Of Property
           Chapter 85-Disposition Of Deceased Veterans' Personal 
           Property
                Subchapter I-Property Left On Department Facility
  8502   Disposition of unclaimed personal property
  8504   Disposition of other unclaimed property
                Subchapter II-Death While Patient Of Department 
                Facility
  8520   Vesting of property left by decedents
  8521   Presumption of contract for disposition of personalty

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 7-Social Security
           Subchapter II-Federal Old-Age, Survivors, And Disability 
           Insurance Benefits
  417    Benefits for veterans

Category 3-Taxation

Title 26-Internal Revenue Code
      Subtitle A-Income Taxes
           Chapter 1-Normal Taxes And Surtaxes
                Subchapter A-Determination Of Tax Liability
                     Part I-Tax On Individuals
  1      Tax imposed
  2      Definitions and special rules
                     Part IV-Credits Against Tax
                          Subpart A-Nonrefundable Personal Credits
  21     Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary 
         for gainful employment
  22     Credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally 
         disabled
  23     Adoption expenses
                          Subpart C-Refundable Credits
  32     Earned income
                          Subpart D-Business Related Credits
  38     General business credit
  42     Low-income housing credit
  45A    Indian employment credit
                          Subpart E-Rules For Computing Investment 
                          Credit
  50     Other special rules
                     Part VI-Alternative Minimum Tax 
  55     Alternative minimum tax imposed
                Subchapter B-Computation Of Taxable Income
                     Part I-Definition Of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross 
                     Income, Taxable Income, Etc.
  61     Gross income defined
  62     Adjusted gross income defined
  63     Taxable income defined
  66     Treatment of community income
  68     Overall limitation on itemized deductions
                     Part II-Items Specifically Included In Gross 
                     Income
  71     Alimony and separate maintenance payments
  72     Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance 
         contracts
  86     Social security and tier 1 railroad retirement benefits
                     Part III-Items Specifically Excluded From Gross 
                     Income
  105    Amounts received under accident and health plans
  106    Contributions by employer to accident and health plans
  108    Income from discharge of indebtedness
  119    Meals or lodging furnished for the convenience of the 
         employer
  120    Amounts received under qualified group legal services plans
  121    One-time exclusion of gain from sale of principal residence 
         by individual who has attained age 55
  125    Cafeteria plans  127Educational assistance programs
  129    Dependent care assistance programs
  132    Certain fringe benefits
  135    Income from United States savings bonds used to pay higher 
         education tuition and fees
                     Part IV-Tax Exemption Requirements For State
                     And Local Bonds
                          Subpart A-Private Activity Bonds
  143    Mortgage revenue bonds: qualified mortgage bond and qualified 
         veterans' mortgage bond
  147    Other requirements applicable to certain private activity 
         bonds
                     Part V-Deductions For Personal Exemptions
  151    Allowance of deductions for personal exemptions
  152    Dependent defined
  153    Cross references
                     Part VI-Itemized Deductions For Individuals And 
                     Corporations
  162    Trade or business expenses
  163    Interest
  165    Losses 
  170    Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts
  179    Election to expense certain depreciable business assets
  194    Amortization of reforestation expenditures
                     Part VII-Additional Itemized Deductions For 
                     Individuals
  213    Medical, dental, etc., expenses
  215    Alimony, etc., payments
  217    Moving expenses
  219    Retirement savings
  220    Medical savings accounts
                     Part IX-Items Not Deductible
  263A   Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain 
         expenses
  267    Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions 
         between related taxpayers
  274    Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses
                Subchapter C-Corporate Distributions And Adjustments
                     Part I-Distributions By Corporations
                          Subpart A-Effects On Recipients
  303    Distributions in redemption of stock to pay death taxes
                          Subpart C-Definitions; Constructive 
                          Ownership Of Stock
  318    Constructive ownership of stock
                     Part II-Corporate Liquidations
                          Subpart C-Collapsible Corporations
  341    Collapsible corporations
                     Part V-Carryovers
  382    Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain 
         built-in losses following ownership change
                Subchapter D-Deferred Compensation, Etc.
                     Part I-Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus 
                     Plans, Etc.
                          Subpart A-General Rule
  401    Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans
  402    Taxability of beneficiary of employees' trust
  404    Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees' 
         trust or annuity plan and compensation under a 
         deferred-payment plan
  408    Individual retirement accounts
  409    Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans
                          Subpart B-Special Rules
  411    Minimum vesting standards
  414    Definitions and special rules
  415    Limitations on benefits and contribution under qualified 
         plans
  417    Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum 
         survivor annuity requirements
                          Subpart E-Treatment Of Transfers To Retiree 
                          Health Accounts
  420    Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts
                     Part II-Certain Stock Options
  424    Definitions and special rules
                Subchapter E-Accounting Periods And Methods Of 
                Accounting
                     Part II-Methods Of Accounting
                          Subpart A-Methods Of Accounting In General
  447    Method of accounting for corporations engaged in farming
                          Subpart B-Taxable Year For Which Items Of 
                          Gross Income Included
  453    Installment method
  453B   Gain or loss disposition of installment obligations
  457    Deferred compensation plans of State and local governments 
         and tax-exempt organization
                          Subpart C-Taxable Year For Which Deductions 
                          Taken
  464    Limitations on deductions for certain farming
  469    Passive activity losses and credits limited
                Subchapter F-Exempt Organizations
                     Part I-General Rule
  501    Exemption from tax on corporations, certain trusts, etc.
  507    Termination of private foundation status
                Subchapter G-Corporations Used To Avoid Income Tax
                On Shareholders
                     Part II-Personal Holding Companies
  544    Rules for determining stock ownership
                     Part III-Foreign Personal Holding Companies
  554    Stock ownership
                Subchapter I-Natural Resources
                     Part I-Deductions
  613A   Limitations on percentage depletion in case of oil and gas 
         wells
                Subchapter J-Estates, Trusts, Beneficiaries, And 
                Decedents
                     Part I-Estates, Trusts, And Beneficiaries
                          Subpart A-General Rules For Taxation Of 
                          Estates
                          And Trusts
  643    Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D
                          Subpart E-Grantors And Others Treated As 
                          Substantial Owners
  672    Definitions and rules
  674    Power to control beneficial enjoyment
  675    Administrative powers
  677    Income for benefit of grantor
                          Subpart F-Miscellaneous
  682    Income of an estate or trust in case of divorce, etc.
                     Part II-Income In Respect Of Decedents
  691    Recipients of income in respect of decedents
                Subchapter K-Partners And Partnerships
                     Part I-Determination Of Tax Liability
  704    Partner's distributive share
                Subchapter N-Tax Based On Income From Sources Within 
                Or Without The United States
                     Part II-Nonresident Aliens And Foreign 
                     Corporations
                          Subpart A-Nonresident Alien Individuals
  871    Tax on nonresident alien individuals
  877    Expatriation to avoid tax
  879    Tax treatment of certain community income in the case of 
         nonresident alien individuals
                     Part III-Income From Sources Without The United 
                     States
                          Subpart B-Earned Income Of Citizens Or 
                          Residents
                          Of United States
  911    Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad
                          Subpart D-Possessions Of The United States
  932    Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes
                Subchapter O-Gain Or Loss On Disposition Of Property
                     Part II-Basis Rules Of General Application
  1014   Basis of property acquired from a decedent
  1015   Basis of property acquired by gifts and transfers in trust
                     Part III-Common Nontaxable Exchanges
  1034   Rollover of gain on sale of principal residence
  1041   Transfers of property between spouses or incident to divorce
  1043   Sale of property to comply with conflict-of-interest 
         requirements
  1044   Rollover of publicly traded securities gain into specialized 
         small business investment companies
		        Part VII-Wash Sales; Straddles
  1092   Straddles
                Subchapter P-Capital Gains And Losses
                     Part I-Treatment Of Capital Gains
  1202   50-percent exclusion for gain from certain small business 
         stock
                     Part II-Treatment Of Capital Losses
  1211   Limitation on capital losses
                     Part IV-Special Rules For Determining Capital 
                     Gains And Losses
  1233   Gains and losses from short sales
  1235   Sale or exchange of patents
  1239   Gain from sale of depreciable property between certain 
         related taxpayers
  1244   Losses on small business stock
  1256   Section 1256 contracts marked to market
                     Part V-Special Rules For Bonds And Other Debt 
                     Instruments
                          Subpart A-Original Issue Discount
  1272   Current inclusion in income of original issue discount
                Subchapter Q-Readjustment Of Tax Between Years And
                Special Limitations
                     Part II-Mitigation Of Effect Of Limitations And 
                     Other Provisions
  1313   Definitions
                Subchapter S-Tax Treatment Of S Corporations And Their 
                Shareholders
                     Part I-In General
  1361   S corporation defined
                Subchapter V-Title 11 Cases
  1398   Rules relating to individuals' title 11 cases
           Chapter 2-Tax On Self-Employment Income
  1402   Definitions
           Chapter 6-Consolidated Returns
                Subchapter B-Related Rules
                     Part II-Certain Controlled Corporations 
  1563   Definitions and special rules
      Subtitle B-Estate And Gift Taxes
           Chapter 11-Estate Tax
                Subchapter A-Estates Of Citizens Or Residents
                     Part I-Tax Imposed
  2001   Imposition and rate of tax
                     Part II-Credits Against Tax 
  2012   Credit for gift tax
  2013   Credit for tax on prior transfers
  2014   Credit for foreign death taxes
                     Part III-Gross Estate
  2032   Alternate valuation
  2032A  Valuation of certain farm, etc., real property
  2034   Dower or curtesy interests 
  2035   Adjustments for gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death
  2037   Transfers taking effect at death
  2040   Joint interests
  2043   Transfers for insufficient consideration
                     Part IV-Taxable Estate
  2053   Expenses, indebtedness, and taxes
  2056   Bequests, etc., to surviving spouse
  2056A  Qualified domestic trust
                Subchapter B-Estates Of Nonresidents Not Citizens
  2106   Taxable estate
                Subchapter C-Miscellaneous
  2206   Liability of life insurance beneficiaries
  2207   Liability of recipient of property over which decedent had 
         power of appointment
  2207A  Right of recovery in the case of certain marital deduction 
         property
           Chapter 12-Gift Tax
                Subchapter B-Transfers
  2513   Gift by husband or wife to third party
  2516   Certain property settlements
  2518   Disclaimers
                Subchapter C-Deductions
  2523   Gift to spouse
           Chapter 13-Tax On Generation-Skipping Transfers
                Subchapter B-Generation-Skipping Transfers
  2612   Taxable termination; taxable distribution; direct skip
                Subchapter E-Applicable Rate; Inclusion Ratio
  2642   Inclusion ratio
                Subchapter F-Other Definitions And Special Rules
  2651   Generation assignment
  2652   Other definitions
           Chapter 14-Special Valuation Rules
  2701   Special valuation rules in case of transfers of certain 
         interests in corporations or partnerships
  2704   Treatment of certain lapsing rights and restrictions
      Subtitle C-Employment Taxes
           Chapter 21-Federal Insurance Contributions Act
                Subchapter C-General Provisions
  3121   Definitions
           Chapter 22-Railroad Retirement Tax Act
                Subchapter D-General Provisions
  3231   Definitions
           Chapter 23-Federal Unemployment Tax Act
  3306   Definitions
           Chapter 24-Collection Of Income Tax At Source On Wages
  3402   Income tax collected at source
  3405   Special rules for pensions, annuities, and certain other 
         deferred income
           Chapter 25-General Provisions Relating To Employment Taxes
  3507   Advance payment of earned income credit
      Subtitle D-Miscellaneous Excise Taxes
           Chapter 40-General Provisions Relating To Occupational 
           Taxes
  4905   Liability in case of death or change of location
           Chapter 42-Private Foundations; And Certain Other 
           Tax-exempt Organizations
                Subchapter A-Private Foundations
  4942   Taxes on failure to distribute income
  4946   Definitions and special rules
                Subchapter B-Black Lung Benefit Trusts
  4951   Taxes on self-dealing 
                Subchapter D-Failure By Certain Charitable 
                Organizations
                To Meet Certain Qualification Requirements
  4958   Taxes on excess benefit transactions
           Chapter 43-Qualified Pension, Etc., Plans 
  4975   Tax on prohibited transactions
  4980A  Tax on excess distributions from qualified retirement plans
  4980B  Failure to satisfy continuation coverage requirements of 
         group health plans
      Subtitle E-Alcohol, Tobacco, And Certain Other Excise Taxes
           Chapter 51-Distilled Spirits, Wines, And Beer
                Subchapter A-Gallonage And Occupational Taxes
                     Part II-Occupational Tax
                          Subpart G-General Provisions
  5143   Provisions relating to liability for occupational taxes
      Subtitle F-Procedure And Administration
           Chapter 61-Information And Returns
                Subchapter A-Returns And Records
                     Part II-Tax Returns Or Statements
                          Subpart B-Income Tax Returns
  6012   Persons required to make returns of income
  6013   Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife
  6014   Income tax return--tax not computed by taxpayer
  6017   Self-employment tax returns
           Part III-Information Returns
                          Subpart A-Information Concerning Persons 
                          Subject To Special Provisions
  6039C  Returns with respect to foreign persons holding direct 
         investments in United States real property interests
                          Subpart B-Information Concerning 
                          Transactions With Other Persons
  6046   Returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign 
         corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock
                          Subpart C-Information Regarding Wages Paid 
                          Employees
  6051   Receipts for employee
                     Part VIII-Designation Of Income Tax Payments To 
                     Presidential Election Campaign Fund
  6096   Designation by individuals
                Subchapter B-Miscellaneous Provisions
  6103   Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return 
         information
           Chapter 62-Time And Place For Paying Tax
                Subchapter B-Extensions Of Time For Payment
  6166   Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate 
         consists largely of interest in closely held business
           Chapter 63-Assessment
                Subchapter B-Deficiency Procedures In The Case Of 
                Income, Estate, Gift, And Certain Excise Taxes
  6212   Notice of deficiency
                Subchapter C-Tax Treatment Of Partnership Items 
  6231   Definitions and special rules 
           Chapter 64-Collection
                Subchapter C-Lien For Taxes
  6324   Special liens for estate and gift taxes
                Subchapter D-Seizure Of Property For Collection Of 
                Taxes 
  6334   Property exempt from levy
           Chapter 66-Limitations
                Subchapter A-Limitations On Assessment And Collection
  6504   Cross references
           Chapter 68-Additions To The Tax, Additional Amounts, And
           Assessable Penalties
                Subchapter A-Additions To The Tax And Additional 
                Amounts
                     Part I-General Provisions
  6654   Failure by individual to pay estimated income tax
                     Part II-Accuracy-Related And Fraud Penalties 
  6663   Imposition of fraud penalty
           Chapter 76-Judicial Proceedings
                Subchapter B-Proceedings By Taxpayers And Third 
                Parties
  7428   Declaratory judgments relating to status and classification 
         of organizations under section 501(c)(3), etc.
  7430   Awarding of costs and certain fees
           Chapter 77-Miscellaneous Provisions
  7508   Time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of 
         service in combat zone
           Chapter 79-Definitions
  7701   Definitions
  7702B  Treatment of qualified long-term care insurance
  7703   Determination of marital status
           Chapter 80-General Rules
                Subchapter C-Provisions Affecting More Than One 
                Subtitle
  7871   Indian tribal governments treated as States for certain 
         purposes
  7872   Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates
  7873   Income derived by Indians from exercise of fishing rights
      Subtitle I-Trust Fund Code
           Chapter 98-Trust Fund Code
                Subchapter A-Establishment of Trust Funds
  9501   Black lung disability trust fund
      Subtitle K-Group Health Plan Portability, Access, And 
      Renewability Requirements
           Chapter 100-Group Health Plan Portability, Access, And 
           Renewability Requirements
  9801   Increased portability through limitation on preexisting 
         condition exclusions

Category 4-Federal Civilian and Military Service Benefits

Title 2-The Congress
      Chapter 3-Compensation And Allowances Of Members

  36a    Payment of sums due deceased Senators and Senate personnel
  38a    Disposition of unpaid salary and other sums on death of 
         Representative or Resident Commissioner

      Chapter 4-Officers And Employees Of Senate And House Of 
      Representatives

  121b   Senate Beauty Shop
  124    Arrangements for attendance at funeral of deceased House 
         Members; payment of funeral expenses and expenses of 
         attending funeral rites
  125    Gratuities for survivors of deceased House employees; 
         computation
      Chapter 16-Congressional Mailing Standards
  501    House Commission on Congressional Mailing Standards
  502    Select Committee on Standards and Conduct of the Senate
      Chapter 20-Emergency Powers To Eliminate Budget Deficits
           Subchapter I-Elimination Of Deficits In Excess Of Maximum 
           Deficit Amount
  905    Exempt programs and activities

Title 3-The President
      Chapter 2-Office And Compensation Of President
  105    Assistance and services for the President
  106    Assistance and services for the Vice President
      Chapter 4-Delegation Of Functions
  301    General authorization to delegate functions; publication of 
         delegations

Title 5-Government Organization And Employees
      Part III-Employees
           Subpart D-Pay And Allowances
                Chapter 55-Pay Administration
                     Subchapter II-Withholding Pay
  5520a  Garnishment of pay
                     Subchapter IV-Dual Pay And Dual Employment
  5532   Employment of retired members of the uniformed services; 
         reduction in retired or retainer pay
                     Subchapter VII-Payments To Missing Employees
  5561   Definitions
  5567   Settlement of accounts
  5569   Benefits for captives
                     Subchapter VIII-Settlement Of Accounts
  5582   Designation of beneficiary; order of precedence
  5583   Payment of money due; settlement of accounts
                     Subchapter IX-Severance Pay And Back Pay
  5595   Severance pay
                Chapter 57-Travel, Transportation, And Subsistence
                     Subchapter II-Travel And Transportation Expenses; 
                     New Appointees, Student Trainees, And Transferred 
                     Employees
  5724a  Relocation expenses of employees transferred or reemployed
  5724b  Taxes on reimbursements for travel, transportation, and 
         relocation expenses of employees transferred
                Chapter 59-Allowances
                     Subchapter III-Overseas Differentials And 
                     Allowances
  5924   Cost-of-living allowances
                     Subchapter IV-Miscellaneous Allowances
  5942a  Separate maintenance allowance for duty at Johnston Island
           Subpart E-Attendance And Leave
                Chapter 63-Leave
                     Subchapter V-Family And Medical Leave
  6382   Leave requirement
  6383   Certification
           Subpart G-Insurance And Annuities
                Chapter 81-Compensation For Work Injuries
                     Subchapter I-Generally
  8101   Definitions
  8109   Beneficiaries of awards unpaid at death; order of precedence
  8110   Augmented compensation for dependents
  8116   Limitations on right to receive compensation
  8133   Compensation in case of death
  8135   Lump-sum payment
  8141   Civil Air Patrol volunteers
                     Subchapter II-Employees Of Nonappropriated Fund 
                     Instrumentalities
  8173   Liability under this subchapter exclusive
                     Subchapter III-Law Enforcement Officers Not 
                     Employed By The United States
  8191   Determination of eligibility
  8192   Benefits
  8193   Administration
                Chapter 83-Retirement
                     Subchapter II-Forfeiture Of Annuities And Retired 
                     Pay
  8311   Definitions
  8312   Conviction of certain offenses
  8313   Absence from United States to avoid prosecution
  8314   Refusal to testify
  8315   Falsifying employment applications
  8317   Repayment of annuity or retired pay properly paid; waiver
  8318   Restoration of annuity or retired pay
                     Subchapter III-Civil Service Retirement
  8331   Definitions
  8332   Creditable service
  8333   Eligibility for annuity
  8334   Deductions, contributions, and deposits
  8339   Computation of annuity
  8340   Cost-of-living adjustment of annuities
  8341   Survivor annuities
  8342   Lump-sum benefits; designation of beneficiary; order of 
         precedence
  8343a  Alternative forms of annuities
  8344   Annuities and pay on reemployment
  8345   Payment of benefits; commencement, termination, and waiver of 
         annuity
  8347   Administration; regulations
  8348   Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund
  8349   Offset relating to certain benefits under the Social Security 
         Act
  8351   Participation in the Thrift Savings Plan
                Chapter 84-Federal Employees' Retirement System
                     Subchapter I-General Provisions
  8401   Definitions
  8402   Federal Employees' Retirement System; exclusions
                     Subchapter II-Basic Annuity
  8411   Creditable service
  8416   Survivor reduction for a current spouse
  8417   Survivor reduction for a former spouse
  8418   Survivor elections; deposit; offsets
  8419   Survivor reductions; computation
  8420   Insurable interest reductions
  8420a  Alternative forms of annuities
  8422   Deductions from pay; contributions for military service
  8423   Government contributions
  8424   Lump-sum benefits; designation of beneficiary; order of 
         precedence
                     Subchapter III-Thrift Savings Plan
  8432   Contributions
  8434   Annuities: methods of payment; election; purchase
  8435   Protections for spouses and former spouses
  8437   Thrift Savings Fund
  8440a  Justices and judges
  8440b  Bankruptcy judges and magistrates 
                     Subchapter IV-Survivor Annuities
  8441   Definitions
  8442   Rights of a widow or widower
  8443   Rights of a child  8444Rights of a named individual with an 
         insurable interest
  8445   Rights of a former spouse
                     Subchapter VI-General and Administrative 
                     Provisions
  8461   Authority of the Office of Personnel Management
  8462   Cost-of-living adjustments
  8467   Court orders
  8468   Annuities and pay on reemployment
  8469   Withholding of State income taxes
                     Subchapter VII-Federal Retirement Thrift 
                     Investment Management System
  8477   Fiduciary responsibilities; liability and penalties
                Chapter 87-Life Insurance
  8701   Definitions
  8705   Death claims; order of precedence; escheat
  8714c  Optional life insurance on family members
                Chapter 89-Health Insurance
  8901   Definitions
  8902   Contracting authority
  8902a  Debarment and other sanctions
  8903   Health benefits plans
  8905   Election of coverage
  8905a  Continued coverage
  8906   Contribution 
  8908   Coverage of restored employees and survivor or disability 
         annuitants
  8909   Employees Health Benefits Fund
  8913   Regulations

Title 8-Aliens and Nationality
      Chapter 12-Immigration And Nationality
           Subchapter II-Immigration
                Part IX-Miscellaneous
  1353   Travel expenses and expense of transporting remains of 
         officers and employees dying outside of United States

Title 10-Armed Forces
      Subtitle A-General Military Law
           Part I-Organization And General Military Powers
                Chapter 1-Definitions
  101    Definitions
           Part II-Personnel
                Chapter 37-General Service Requirements
  654    Policy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces
                Chapter 47-Uniform Code Of Military Justice
                     Subchapter XII-United States Court Of Appeals For 
                     The Armed Forces
  945    Art. 145. Annuities for judges and survivors
                Chapter 53-Miscellaneous Rights And Benefits
  1041   Replacement of certificate of discharge
  1052   Reimbursement for adoption expenses
  1056   Relocation assistance programs
  1059   Dependents of members separated for dependent abuse: 
         transitional compensation; commissary and exchange benefits
                Chapter 54-Commissary and Exchange Benefits
  1062   Certain former spouses
                Chapter 55-Medical And Dental Care
  1072   Definitions
  1078a  Continued health benefits coverage
  1079   Contracts for medical care for spouses and children: plans
  1092   Studies and demonstration projects relating to delivery of 
         health and medical care
                Chapter 57-Decorations And Awards
  1126   Gold star lapel button: eligibility and distribution
                Chapter 58-Benefits And Services For Members Being 
                Separated Or Recently Separated
  1142   Preseparation counseling; transmittal of medical records to 
         Department of Veterans Affairs
  1143   Employment assistance
  1144   Employment assistance, job training assistance, and other 
         transitional services: Department of Labor
  1151   Assistance to separated members to obtain certification and 
         employment as teachers or employment as teachers' aides
                Chapter 71-Computation Of Retired Pay
  1408   Payment of retired or retainer pay in compliance with court 
         orders
                Chapter 73-Annuities Based On Retired Or Retainer Pay
                     Subchapter I-Retired Serviceman's Family 
                     Protection Plan
  1431   Election of annuity: members of armed forces
  1433   Mental incompetency of member
  1434   Kinds of annuities that may be elected 
  1435   Eligible beneficiaries
                     Subchapter II-Survivor Benefit Plan
  1447   Definitions
  1448   Application of Plan
  1450   Payment of annuity: beneficiaries
  1451   Amount of annuity
  1452   Reduction in retired pay
  1455   Regulations
                     Subchapter III-Supplemental Survivor Benefit Plan
  1456   Supplemental spouse coverage: establishment of plan; 
         definitions
  1457   Supplemental spouse coverage: payment of annuity; amount 
  1458   Supplemental spouse coverage: eligible participants; 
         elections of coverage
  1459   Former spouse coverage: special rules
  1460   Supplemental spouse coverage: reductions in retired pay
  1460a  Incorporation of certain administrative provisions
                Chapter 74-Department Of Defense Military Retirement 
                Fund
  1461   Establishment and purpose of Fund; definition
  1463   Payments from the Fund
  1465   Determination of contributions to the Fund
  1466   Payments into the Fund
                Chapter 75-Death Benefits
  1475   Death gratuity: death of members on active duty or inactive 
         duty training and of certain other persons
  1476   Death gratuity: death after discharge or release from duty or 
         training
  1477   Death gratuity: eligible survivors
  1479   Death gratuity: delegation of determinations, payments
  1482   Expenses incident to death
  1489   Death gratuity: members and employees dying outside the 
         United States while assigned to intelligence duties
                Chapter 76-Missing Persons
  1513   Definitions
                Chapter 79-Correction Of Military Records
  1552   Correction of military records: claims incident thereto
  1553   Review of discharge or dismissal
                Chapter 81-Civilian Employees
  1588   Authority to accept certain voluntary services
                Chapter 88-Military Family Programs And Military Child 
                Care
                     Subchapter I-Military Family Programs
  1784   Employment opportunities for military spouses
                     Subchapter II-Military Child Care
  1792   Child care employees
           Part III-Training And Education
                Chapter 107-Educational Assistance For Persons 
                Enlisting
                For Active Duty
  2147   Right of member after reenlisting to transfer entitlement to 
         spouse or dependent children
  2148   Duration of entitlement
           Part IV-Service, Supply, And Procurement
                Chapter 157-Transportation
  2641   Transportation of certain veterans on Department of Defense 
         aeromedical evacuation aircraft
                Chapter 165-Accountability And Responsibility
  2771   Final settlement of accounts: deceased members
      Subtitle B-Army
           Part IV-Service, Supply, And Procurement
                Chapter 445-Inquests; Disposition Of Effects Of 
                Deceased Persons; Captured Flags
  4712   Disposition of effects of deceased persons by summary 
         court-martial
      Subtitle C-Navy And Marine Corps
           Part IV-General Administration
                Chapter 651-Ships' Stores And Commissary Stores
  7601   Sales: members of the naval service and Coast Guard; widows 
         and widowers; civilian employees and other persons 
      Subtitle D-Air Force
           Part IV-Service, Supply, And Procurement
                Chapter 945-Inquests; Disposition Of Effects Of 
                Deceased Persons
  9712   Disposition of effects of deceased persons by summary 
         court-martial
      Subtitle E-Reserve Components
           Part I-Organization And Administration
                Chapter 1007-Administration Of Reserve Components
  10205  Members of Ready Reserve: requirement of notification of 
         change of status
           Part II-Personnel Generally
                Chapter 1209-Active Duty
  12319  Ready Reserve: muster duty
                Chapter 1214-Ready Reserve Mobilization Income 
                Insurance
  12530  Payment of benefits
                Chapter 1223-Retired Pay For Nonregular Service
  12731  Age and service requirements

Title 14-Coast Guard
      Part I-Regular Coast Guard
           Chapter 13-Pay, Allowances, Awards, And Other Rights And 
           Benefits
  487    Procurement and sale of stores to members and civilian 
         employees
  498    Posthumous awards
  514    Reimbursement for adoption expenses
      Part II-Coast Guard Reserve And Auxiliary
           Chapter 21-Coast Guard Reserve
                Subchapter A-General
  707    Temporary members of the Reserve; disability or death 
         benefits

Title 16-Conservation
      Chapter 24-Conservation And Protection Of Fur Seals
           Subchapter II-Administration Of Pribilof Islands
  1168   Civil service retirement benefits
  1169a  Annuities and survivor annuities; recomputation

Title 20-Education
      Chapter 25A-Overseas Defense Dependents' Education
  932    Definitions

Title 22-Foreign Relations and Intercourse
      Chapter 4-Passports
  214    Fees for execution and issuance of passports; persons excused 
         from payment
      Chapter 34-The Peace Corps
  2505   Peace Corps volunteer leaders; number; applicability of 
         chapter; benefits
      Chapter 38-Department Of State
  2703   Services and facilities for employees at posts abroad
  2708   Reward; information; international terrorism
      Chapter 48-Taiwan Relations
  3310   Employment of United States Government agency personnel
      Chapter 51-Panama Canal
           Subchapter I-Administration And Regulations
                Part 2-Employees
                     Subpart IV-Retirement
  3682   Cash relief to certain former employees
      Chapter 52-Foreign Service
           Subchapter IV-Compensation
  3968   Local compensation plans
  3973   Death gratuities
           Subchapter VII-Career Development, Training, And 
           Orientation
  4026   Career counseling
           Subchapter VIII-Foreign Service Retirement and Disability
                Part I-Foreign Service Retirement And Disability 
                System
  4044   Definitions
  4045   Contributions to the Fund
  4046   Computation of annuities
  4047   Payment of annuity 
  4049   Death in service
  4054   Former spouses
  4055   Lump-sum payments
  4056   Creditable service
  4057   Extra credit for service at unhealthful posts
  4060   Assignment and attachment of moneys
  4066   Cost-of-living adjustment of annuities
  4068   Remarriage
  4069-1 Qualified former wives and husbands
  4069a  Retirement benefits for certain former spouses
  4069a-1Retirement benefits for certain former spouses
  4069b  Survivor benefits for certain former spouses  4069b-1Survivor 
         benefits for certain former spouses
  4069c  Health benefits for certain former spouses
  4069c-1Health benefits for certain former spouses
                Part II-Foreign Service Pension System
  4071a  Definitions
  4071d  Entitlement to annuity
  4071j  Former spouses
  4071k  Spousal agreements
           Subchapter IX-Travel, Leave, And Other Benefits
  4084   Health care program
           Subchapter XI-Grievances
  4132   Grievances concerning former members or their survivors
           Subchapter XII-Transition
  4159   Survivor benefits for certain former spouses

Title 24-Hospitals And Asylums
      Chapter 10-Armed Forces Retirement Home
           Subchapter I-Establishment And Operation Of Retirement Home
  420    Disposition of effects of deceased persons; unclaimed 
         property

Title 26-Internal Revenue Code
      Subtitle F-Procedure And Administration
           Chapter 76-Judicial Proceedings
                Subchapter C-The Tax Court
                     Part I-Organization And Jurisdiction
  7448   Annuities to surviving spouses and dependent children of 
         judges

Title 28-Judiciary And Judicial Procedure
      Part I-Organization Of Courts
           Chapter 7-United States Court Of Federal Claims
  178    Retirement of judges of the Court of Federal Claims
           Chapter 17-Resignation And Retirement Of Justices And 
           Judges
  376    Annuities for survivors of certain judicial officials of the 
         United States
  377    Retirement of bankruptcy judges and magistrates
      Part III-Court Officers And Employees
           Chapter 41-Administrative Office Of United States Courts
  604    Duties of Director generally
  605    Budget estimates

Title 29-Labor
      Chapter 19-Job Training Partnership
           Subchapter IV-Federally Administered Programs
                Part B-Job Corps
  1706   Application of provisions of Federal law
Title 31-Money and Finance
      Subtitle I-General
           Chapter 7-General Accounting Office
                Subchapter V-Annuities
  771    Definitions
  772    Annuity of the Comptroller General
  773    Election of survivor benefits
  774    Survivor annuities
  775    Refunds
  776    Payment of survivor benefits
  777    Annuity increases
      Subtitle III-Financial Management
           Chapter 33-Depositing, Keeping, And Paying Money
                Subchapter II-Payments
  3330   Payment of Department of Veterans Affairs checks for the 
         benefit of individuals in foreign countries
           Chapter 37-Claims
                Subchapter III-Claims Against The United States 
                Government
  3721   Claims of personnel of agencies and the District of Columbia 
         government for personal property damage or loss

Title 32-National Guard
      Chapter 1-Organization
  101    Definitions
      Chapter 7-Service, Supply, And Procurement
  714    Final settlement of accounts: deceased members

Title 33-Navigation And Navigable Waters
      Chapter 16-Lighthouses 
  771    Benefits for surviving spouses of Lighthouse Service 
         employees; death of employee during retirement; amount of 
         payment
  772    Death of employee due to non-service-connected causes after 
         15 years' service; amount of payment
      Chapter 17-National Ocean Survey
           Subchapter I-General Provisions
  857-4  Commissary privileges
  857a   Rights, benefits, privileges, and immunities; exercise of 
         authority by Secretary of Commerce or designee

Title 37-Pay And Allowances Of The Uniformed Services
      Chapter 7-Allowances
  401    Definitions
  403b   Cost-of-living allowance in the continental United States
  406    Travel and transportation allowances: dependents; baggage and 
         household effects
  411h   Travel and transportation allowances: transportation of 
         family members incident to the serious illness or injury of 
         members  423Validity of allowance payments based on purported 
         marriages
  430    Travel and transportation: dependent children of members 
         stationed overseas
      Chapter 10-Payments To Missing Persons
  551    Definitions
  557    Settlement of accounts
      Chapter 19-Administration
  1011   Mess operation: reimbursement of expenses

Title 39-Postal Service
      Part IV-Mail Matter
           Chapter 32-Penalty And Franked Mail
  3210   Franked mail transmitted by the Vice President, Members of 
         Congress, and congressional officials
  3214   Mailing privilege of former President; surviving spouse of 
         former President
  3216   Reimbursement for franked mailings
  3218   Franked mail for survivors of Members of Congress

Title 40-Public Buildings, Property, And Works
      Chapter 2-Capitol Building And Grounds
  166b-4 Gratuities for survivors of deceased employees under 
         jurisdiction of Architect of Capitol
  184g   House of Representatives Child Care Center
  214d   Senate Employee Child Care Center benefits

Title 42-The Public Health and Welfare
      Chapter 6A-The Public Health Service
           Subchapter I-Administration And Miscellaneous Provisions
                Part A-Administration
  213    Military benefits
  213a   Rights, benefits, privileges, and immunities for commissioned 
         officers or beneficiaries; exercise of authority by Secretary 
         or designee
           Subchapter II-General Powers And Duties
                Part C-Hospitals, Medical Examinations, And Medical 
                Care
  253a   Medical services to retired personnel of National Oceanic and 
         Atmospheric Administration
      Chapter 11-Compensation For Disability Or Death To Persons 
      Employed At Military, Air, And Naval Bases Outside United States
  1652   Computation of benefits; application to aliens and 
         nonnationals
      Chapter 20-Elective Franchise
           Subchapter I-G-Registration And Voting By Absent Uniformed 
           Services Voters And Overseas Voters In Elections For 
           Federal Office
  1973ff-6Definitions
      Chapter 23-Development And Control Of Atomic Energy
           Division B-United States Enrichment Corporation
               Subchapter VIII-United States Enrichment Corporation 
               Privatization
  2297h-8Employee protections

Title 50-War and National Defense
      Chapter 15-National Security
           Subchapter I-Coordination For National Security
  403k   Authority to pay death gratuities
  403n   Special provisions for spouses of Central Intelligence Agency 
         employees applicable to Agency participants in Civil Service 
         Retirement and Disability System
  403p   Health benefits for certain former spouses of Central 
         Intelligence Agency employees
  403s   Special rules for disability retirement and death-in-service 
         benefits with respect to certain employees
      Chapter 38-Central Intelligence Agency Retirement And Disability
           Subchapter I-Definitions
  2002   Definitions relating to participants and annuitants
           Subchapter II-Central Intelligence Agency Retirement And
           Disability System
                Part B-Contributions
  2021   Contributions to fund
                Part C-Computation Of Annuities
  2031   Computation of annuities
  2032   Annuities for former spouses
  2033   Election of survivor benefits for certain former spouses 
         divorced as of November 15, 1982
  2034   Survivor annuity for certain other former spouses
  2035   Retirement annuity for certain former spouses
  2036   Survivor annuities for previous spouses
                Part D-Benefits Accruing To Certain Participants
  2051   Retirement for disability or incapacity; medical examination; 
         recovery
  2052   Death in service
  2056   Eligibility for annuity
                Part E-Lump-Sum Payments
  2071   Lump-sum payments
                Part F-Period Of Service For Annuities
  2082   Prior service credit
                Part G-Moneys
  2093   Payment of benefits
  2094   Attachment of moneys
                Part J-Cost-Of-Living Adjustment Of Annuities
  2131   Cost-of-living adjustment of annuities
                Part K-Conformity With Civil Service Retirement System
  2141   Authority to maintain existing areas of conformity between 
         Civil Service and Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and 
         Disability Systems
  2143   Alternative forms of annuities
           Subchapter III-Participation In Federal Employees' 
           Retirement System
  2154   Special rules for former spouses

Title 50-Appendix
      Soldiers' And Sailors' Civil Relief Act Of 1940
           Article III-Rent, Installment Contracts, Mortgages, Liens, 
           Assignments, Leases
  530    Eviction or distress during military service; stay; penalty 
         for noncompliance; allotment of pay for payment
           Article V-Taxes And Public Lands
  563    Death or incapacity during or resulting from service as 
         affecting rights; perfection of rights
           Article VII-Further Relief
  591    Power of attorney

Category 5-Employment Benefits and Related Laws

Title 16-Conservation
      Chapter 31-Marine Mammal Protection
           Subchapter II-Conservation And Protection Of Marine Mammals
  1383a  Interim exemption for commercial fisheries

Title 29-Labor
      Chapter 7-Labor-Management Relations
           Subchapter II-National Labor Relations
  152    Definitions
      Chapter 8-Fair Labor Standards
  203    Definitions
  213    Exemptions
      Chapter 18-Employee Retirement Income Security Program
           Subchapter I-Protection Of Employee Benefit Rights
                Subtitle A-General Provisions
  1002   Definitions
                Subtitle B-Regulatory Provisions
                     Part 1-Reporting And Disclosure
  1021   Duty of disclosure and reporting
                     Part 2-Participation And Vesting 
  1053   Minimum vesting standards
  1055   Requirement of joint and survivor annuity and preretirement 
         survivor annuity
  1056   Form and payment of benefits
                     Part 6-Continuation Coverage And Additional 
                     Standards For Group Health Plans
  1162   Continuation coverage
  1163   Qualifying event
  1166   Notice requirements
  1167   Definitions and special rules
                     Part 7-Group Health Plan Portability, Access, And 
                     Renewability Requirements
  1181   Increased portability through limitation on preexisting 
         condition exclusion
           Subchapter III-Plan Termination Insurance
                 Subtitle B-Coverage
  1322   Single-employer plan benefits guaranteed
                Subtitle C-Terminations
  1350   Missing participants
      Chapter 19-Job Training Partnership
  1503   Definitions
           Subchapter II-Training Services For The Disadvantaged
                Part C-Youth Training Program
  1644   Program design
           Subchapter IV-Federally Administered Programs
                Part B-Job Corps
  1699   Allowances and support
                Part E-Labor Market Information 
  1752   Cooperative labor market information program
      Chapter 28-Family And Medical Leave
  2601   Findings and purposes
           Subchapter I-General Requirements For Leave
  2611   Definitions
  2612   Leave requirement
  2613   Certification
  2614   Employment and benefits protection

Title 30-Mineral Lands And Mining
      Chapter 22-Mine Safety And Health
           Subchapter II-Interim Mandatory Health Standards
  843    Medical examinations
           Subchapter IV-Black Lung Benefits
                Part A-General Provisions
  901    Congressional findings and declaration of purpose; short 
         title
  902    Definitions
  903    Field offices
                Part B-Claims For Benefits Filed On Or Before December 
                31, 1973
  921    Regulations and presumptions
  922    Payment of benefits
  923    Filing of notice of claim
  924    Time for filing claims
                Part C-Claims For Benefits After December 31, 1973
  931    Benefits under State workmen's compensation laws
  932    Failure to meet workmen's compensation requirements

Title 33-Navigation And Navigable Waters
      Chapter 18-Longshore And Harbor Workers' Compensation
  902    Definitions
  905    Exclusiveness of liability
  906    Compensation
  908    Compensation for disability
  909    Compensation for death
  910    Determination of pay
  931    Penalty for misrepresentation
  933    Compensation for injuries where third persons are liable

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 6A-Public Health Service
           Subchapter XX-Requirements For Certain Group Health Plans 
           For Certain State And Local Employees
  300bb-3Qualifying event
  300bb-6Notice requirements
  300bb-8Definitions
           Subchapter XXV-Assuring Portability, Availability, And 
           Renewability Of Health Insurance Coverage
                Part A-Group Market Reforms
                     Subpart 1-Portability, Access, And Renewability 
                     Requirements
  300gg  Increased portability through limitation on preexisting 
         condition exclusions
      Chapter 12-Compensation For Injury, Death, Or Detention Of 
      Employees Of Contractors With The United States Outside United 
      States
           Subchapter I-Compensation, Reimbursement, Etc., By 
           Secretary Of Labor
  1701   Compensation for injury or death resulting from war-risk 
         hazard
      Chapter 46-Justice System Improvement
            Subchapter XII-Public Safety Officers' Death Benefits
  3796   Payment of death benefits
           Subchapter XII-K-Family Support
   3796jj-2Uses of funds

Title 45-Railroads
      Chapter 2-Liability For Injuries To Employees
  51     Liability of common carriers by railroad, in interstate or 
         foreign commerce, for injuries to employees from negligence; 
         employee defined
  52     Carriers in Territories or other possessions of United States
  59     Survival of right of action of person injured
      Chapter 9-Retirement Of Railroad Employees
           Subchapter IV-Railroad Retirement Act Of 1974
  231a   Annuity eligibility requirements
  231b   Computation of annuities
  231c   Computation of spouse and survivor annuities
  231d   Annuity beginning and ending dates
  231e   Lump sum payments
  231f   Railroad Retirement Board
  231m   Assignability; exemption from levy
  231r   Automatic benefit eligibility requirement adjustments
      Chapter 11-Railroad Unemployment Insurance
  352    Benefits

Title 46-Shipping
      Subtitle II-Vessels And Seamen
           Part G-Merchant Seamen Protection And Relief
                Chapter 103-Foreign And Intercoastal Voyages
  10315  Allotments
                Chapter 107-Effects Of Deceased Seamen
  10709  Distribution
                Chapter 111-Protection And Relief
  11109  Attachment of wages

Title 49-Transportation
      Subtitle VII-Aviation Programs
           Part A-Air Commerce And Safety
                Subpart II-Economic Regulation
                     Chapter 415-Pricing
  41511  Special prices for foreign air transportation

Title 50-War And National Defense
Title 50-Appendix
      National Emergency And War Shipping Acts; March 24, 1943
  1291   Rights of American seamen on privately owned and operated 
         American vessels extended to seamen employed through the War 
         Shipping Administration; exceptions; definitions

Category 6-Immigration, Naturalization, and Aliens

Title 8-Aliens And Nationality
      Chapter 12-Immigration And Nationality
           Subchapter I-General Provisions
  1101   Definitions
           Subchapter II-Immigration
                Part I-Selection System
  1151   Worldwide level of immigration
  1152   Numerical limitations on individual foreign states
  1153   Allocation of immigrant visas
  1154   Procedure for granting immigrant status
  1157   Annual admission of refugees and admission of emergency 
         situation refugees
  1158   Asylum procedure
  1159   Adjustment of status of refugees
                Part II-Admission Qualifications For Aliens; Travel 
                Control Of Citizens And Aliens
  1182   Excludable aliens
  1184   Admission of nonimmigrants
  1184a  Philippine Traders as nonimmigrants
  1186a  Conditional permanent resident status for certain alien 
         spouses and sons and daughters
  1186b  Conditional permanent resident status for certain alien 
         entrepreneurs, spouses, and children
                Part III-Issuance Of Entry Documents
  1201   Issuance of visas
  1202   Application for visas
                Part IV-Provisions Relating To Entry And Exclusion
  1221   Lists of alien and citizen passengers arriving and departing
                Part V-Deportation; Adjustment Of Status
  1251   Deportable aliens
  1254   Suspension of deportation
  1255   Adjustment of status of nonimmigrant to that of person 
         admitted for permanent residence
                Part VIII-General Penalty Provisions
  1325   Improper entry by alien
  1328   Importation of alien for immoral purpose
           Subchapter III-Nationality And Naturalization
                Part I-Nationality At Birth And Collective 
                Naturalization
  1401   Nationals and citizens of United States at birth
                Part II-Nationality Through Naturalization
  1422   Eligibility for naturalization
  1427   Requirements of naturalization
  1430   Married persons and employees of certain nonprofit 
         organizations
  1435   Former citizens regaining citizenship
  1440-1 Posthumous citizenship through death while on active-duty 
         service in the armed forces during World War I, World War II, 
         the Korean hostilities, the Vietnam hostilities, or in other 
         periods of military hostilities  1444Photographs; number
  1449   Certificate of naturalization; contents
  1451   Revocation of naturalization
  1452   Certificates of citizenship or U.S. non-citizen national 
         status; procedure
  1454   Documents and copies issued by Attorney General
                Part III-Loss Of Nationality
  1489   Application of treaties; exceptions
           Subchapter IV-Refugee Assistance
  1522   Authorization for programs for domestic resettlement of and 
         assistance to refugees
      Chapter 14-Restricting Welfare And Public Benefits For Aliens
           Subchapter I-Eligibility For Federal Benefits
  1612   Limited eligibility of qualified aliens for certain Federal 
         programs
  1613   Five-year limited eligibility of qualified aliens for Federal 
         means-tested public benefit
           Subchapter II-Eligibility For State And Local Public 
           Benefits Programs
  1622   State authority to limit eligibility of qualified aliens for 
         State public benefits
           Subchapter III-Attribution Of Income And Affidavits Of 
           Support
  1631   Federal attribution of sponsor's income and resources to 
         alien
  1632   Authority for States to provide for attribution of sponsors 
         income and resources to the alien with respect to State 
         programs
           Subchapter IV-General Provisions
  1645   Qualifying quarters

Title 22-Foreign Relations And Intercourse
      Chapter 69A-Cuban Liberty And Democratic Solidarity (Libertad)
           Subchapter IV-Exclusion Of Certain Aliens
  6091   Exclusion from the United States of aliens who have 
         confiscated property of United States nationals or who 
         traffic in such property

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 8-Low-Income Housing
  1436a  Restriction on use of assisted housing by non-resident aliens

Category 7-Indians

Title 25-Indians
      Chapter 5-Protection Of Indians
  181    Rights of white men marrying Indian women; tribal property
  182    Rights of Indian women marrying white men; tribal property
  183    Marriage of white men to Indian women; evidence
  184    Rights of children born of marriages between white men and 
         Indian women
      Chapter 10-Descent And Distribution; Heirs Of Allottee
  371    Descent of land
      Chapter 14-Miscellaneous
           Subchapter X-Klamath Tribe: Disposition Of Certain Tribal 
           Funds
  541    Creation of individual credits; authorized purchases
  544    Creation of individual credits; authorized purchases
           Subchapter XVII-Yakima Tribes
  607    Divestment of inheritance of non-members
           Subchapter XXII-Navajo And Hopi Tribes: Settlement Of 
           Rights And Interests
  640d-28 Life estates
           Subchapter XLVI-Ponca Tribe Of Nebraska: Termination Of 
           Federal Supervision
  973    Distribution of assets
      Chapter 18-Indian Health Care
           Subchapter I-Indian Health Professional Personnel
  1616b  Recruitment activities
           Subchapter VI-Miscellaneous  
  1680c  Health services for ineligible persons
      Chapter 21-Indian Child Welfare
  1903   Definitions
      Chapter 24-Indian Land Consolidation
  2205   Descent and distribution of trust or restricted or controlled 
         lands; tribal ordinance barring nonmembers of tribe or 
         non-Indians from inheritance by devise or descent; limitation 
         on life estate
      Chapter 34-Indian Child Protection And Family Violence 
      Prevention
  3202   Definitions

Category 8-Trade, Commerce, And Intellectual Property

Title 7-Agriculture
      Chapter 74-Floral Research And Consumer Information
  4311   Exemption from assessments
      Chapter 97-Fresh Cut Flowers And Fresh Cut Greens Promotion And 
      Information
  6805   Exclusion; determinations

Title 11-Bankruptcy
      Chapter 1-General Provisions
  101    Definition
  109    Who may be a debtor
      Chapter 3-Case Administration
           Subchapter I-Commencement Of A Case
  302    Joint cases
           Subchapter IV-Administrative Powers
  362    Automatic stay
  363    Use, sale, or lease of property
      Chapter 5-Creditors, The Debtor, And The Estate
           Subchapter I-Creditors And Claims
  507    Priorities
           Subchapter II-Debtor's Duties And Benefits
  522    Exemptions
  523    Exceptions to discharge
  524    Effect of discharge
           Subchapter III-The Estate
  541    Property of the estate
  547    Preferences
      Chapter 7-Liquidation
           Subchapter II-Collection, Liquidation, And Distribution of 
           the estate
  726    Distribution of property of the estate
      Chapter 11-Reorganization
           Subchapter I-Officers And Administration
  1114   Payment of insurance benefits to retired employees

Title 12-Banks And Banking
      Chapter 12-Federal Savings Associations
  1467a  Regulations of holding companies
      Chapter 13-National Housing
  1701j-3Preemption of due-on-sale prohibitions
  1701x  Assistance with respect to housing for low- and 
         moderate-income families
           Subchapter II-Mortgage Insurance
  1715m  Mortgage insurance for servicemen
  1715v  Insurance of mortgages for housing for elderly persons
  1715z-1Rental and cooperative housing for lower income families
  1715z-12Single-family mortgage insurance on Hawaiian home lands  
1715z-20 Demonstration program of insurance of home equity conversion 
         mortgages for elderly homeowners
           Subchapter V-Miscellaneous  
  1735f-5Prohibition against discrimination on account of sex in 
         extension of mortgage assistance; consideration of combined 
         income of husband and wife for purpose of extending mortgage 
         credit; definitions
      Chapter 17-Bank Holding Companies
  1843   Interests in nonbanking organizations

Title 15-Commerce And Trade
      Chapter 2D-Investment Companies And Advisers
           Subchapter I-Investment Companies
  80a-2  Definitions
  80a-3  Definition of investment company
      Chapter 14A-Aid To Small Business
  633    Small Business Administration
      Chapter 22-Trademarks
           Subchapter I-The Principal Register
  1052   Trademarks registrable on principal register; concurrent 
         registration
      Chapter 41-Consumer Credit Protection
           Subchapter II-Restrictions On Garnishment
  1673   Restriction on garnishment
           Subchapter IV-Equal Credit Opportunity
  1691c  Administrative enforcement
  1691d  Applicability of other laws
           Subchapter V-Debt Collection Practices
  1692   Congressional findings and declaration of purpose
  1692c  Communication in connection with debt collection
      Chapter 42-Interstate Land Sales
  1702   Exemptions

Title 17-Copyrights
      Chapter 1-Subject Matter And Scope Of Copyright
  101    Definitions
      Chapter 2-Copyright Ownership And Transfer
  203    Termination of transfers and licenses granted by the author
      Chapter 3-Duration Of Copyright
  304    Duration of copyright:  Subsisting copyrights

Title 19-Customs Duties
      Chapter 4-Tariff Act Of 1930
           Subtitle III-Administrative Provisions
                Part I-Definitions And National Customs Automation 
                Program
                     Subpart A-Definitions 
  1401a  Value Subtitle IV-Countervailing And Antidumping Duties
                Part IV-General Provisions
  1677   Definitions; special rules
      Chapter 12-Trade Act Of 1974
           Subchapter IV-Trade Relations With Countries Not Currently 
           Receiving Nondiscriminatory Treatment
  2439   Freedom to emigrate to join very close relative in United 
         States
      Chapter 14-Convention On Cultural Property
  2606   Import restrictions
      Chapter 21-North American Free Trade
           Subchapter II-Customs Provisions
  3332   Rules of origin
           Subchapter III-Application Of Agreement To Sectors And 
           Services
                Part C-Temporary Entry Of Business Persons
  3401   Temporary entry

Category 9-Financial Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Title 2-The Congress
      Chapter 3-Compensation And Allowances Of Members 
  31-2   Gifts and travel
      Chapter 11-Citizens' Commission On Public Service And 
      Compensation
  352    Membership

Title 5-Government Organization And Employees
      Part III-Employees 
           Subpart B-Employment And Retention  
                Chapter 31-Authority For Employment
                     Subchapter I-Employment Authorities 
  3110   Employment of relatives; restrictions
           Subpart F-Labor-Management And Employee Relations 
                Chapter 73-Suitability, Security, And Conduct  
                     Subchapter IV-Foreign Gifts And Decorations
  7342   Receipt and disposition of foreign gifts and decorations
                     Subchapter V-Misconduct
  7351   Gifts to superiors

Title 5-Appendix 4
      Ethics in Government Act of 1978
           Title I-Financial Disclosure Requirements Of Federal 
           Personnel 
  102    Contents of reports
  109    Definitions
           Title V-Government-Wide Limitations On Outside Earned 
           Income And Employment 
  501    Outside earned income limitation

Title 7-Agriculture
       Chapter 50-Agricultural Credit 
           Subchapter IV-Administrative Provisions
  1986   Conflicts of interests
  2008j  National Sheep Industry Improvement Center
      Chapter 88-Research  
           Subchapter VI-Alternative Agricultural Research And 
           Commercialization 
  5903   Board of directors, employees, and facilities

Title 10-Armed Forces
       Subtitle E-Reserve Components   
           Part IV-Training For Reserve Components And Educational
           Assistance Programs   
                Chapter 1606-Educational Assistance For Members Of
                The Selected Reserve  
  16131  Educational assistance program:  establishment;  amount

Title 12-Banks And Banking
      Chapter 27-Real Estate Settlement Procedures
  2602   DefinitionsTitle 16-Conservation 
      Chapter 38-Fishery Conservation And Management 
           Subchapter IV-National Fishery Management Program 
  1852   Regional Fishery Management Councils

Title 18-Crimes And Criminal Procedure
      Part I-Crimes   
           Chapter 93-Public Officers And Employees  
  1910   Nepotism in appointment of receiver or trustee 

Title 22-Foreign Relations And Intercourse
       Chapter 52-Foreign Service   
           Subchapter III-Appointments 
  3944   Chiefs of Mission

Title 28-Judiciary And Judicial Procedure
       Part I-Organization Of Courts 
           Chapter 21-General Provisions Applicable To Courts And 
           Judges
  455    Disqualification of justice, judge, or magistrate
  458    Relative of justice or judge ineligible to appointment
      Part III-Court Officers And Employees   
           Chapter 43-United States Magistrates
  631    Appointment and tenure

Title 29-Labor
      Chapter 11-Labor-Management Reporting And Disclosure Procedure 
      Subchapter III-Reporting By Labor Organizations, Officers And 
      Employees Of Labor Organizations, And Employers   
  432    Report of officers and employees of labor organizations

Title 31-Money And Finance
      Subtitle II-The Budget Process   
           Chapter 13-Appropriations   
                Subchapter III-Limitations, Exceptions, And Penalties  
  1353   Acceptance of travel and related expenses from non-Federal 
         sources

Title 33-Navigation And Navigable Waters
      Chapter 18-Longshore And Harbor Workers' Compensation 
  940    Deputy commissioners

Title 40-Public Buildings, Property, And Works
Title 40-Appendix
      Appalachian Regional Development Act Of 1965   
           Title I-The Appalachian Regional Commission
  108    Personal financial interests

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 6A-Public Health Service 
           Subchapter III-National Research Institutes   
                Part I-National Foundation For Biomedical Research  
  290b   Establishment and duties of Foundation
           Subchapter XI-Health Maintenance Organizations 
  300e-17Financial disclosure
      Chapter 7-Social Security   
           Subchapter XI-General Provisions, Peer Review, And 
           Administrative Simplification 
                Part B-Peer Review Of Utilization And Quality Of 
                Health Care Services 
  1320c-3Functions of peer review organizations

Title 43-Public Lands
       Chapter 4-District Land Offices
  100    Disqualification

Title 50-War And National Defense
       Chapter 15-National Security   
           Subchapter VI-Access To Classified Information
  435    Procedures

Category 10-Crimes and Family Violence

Title 10-Armed Forces
      Subtitle A-General Military Law
           Part II-Personnel 
                Chapter 47-Uniform Code Of Military Justice   
                     Subchapter X-Punitive Articles   
  920    Art. 120. Rape and carnal knowledge

Title 18-Crimes And Criminal Procedure
      Part I-Crimes   
           Chapter 7-Assault    
  115    Influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a Federal 
         official by threatening or injuring a family member
           Chapter 11-Bribery, Graft, And Conflicts Of Interest  
  203    Compensation to Members of Congress, officers, and others in 
         matters affecting the Government
  205    Activities of officers and employees in claims against and 
         other matters affecting the Government
  208    Acts affecting a personal financial interest
           Chapter 41-Extortion And Threats   
  879    Threats against former Presidents and certain other persons 
         protected by the Secret Service
           Chapter 44-Firearms 
  921    Definitions
           Chapter 51-Homicide
  1116   Murder or manslaughter of foreign officials, official guests, 
         or internationally protected persons
           Chapter 53-Indians
  1169   Reporting of child abuse
           Chapter 93-Public Officers And Employees  
  1921   Receiving Federal employees' compensation after marriage
           Chapter 109A-Sexual Abuse 
  2243   Sexual abuse of a minor or ward
           Chapter 110A-Domestic Violence
  2261   Interstate domestic violence
  2262   Interstate violation of protection order
  2265   Full faith and credit given to protection orders
  2266   Definitions
           Chapter 113B-Terrorism
  2333   Civil remedies
      Part II-Criminal Procedure   
           Chapter 203-Arrest And Commitment
  3056   Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret 
         Service
           Chapter 227-Sentences   
                Subchapter B-Probation  
  3561   Sentence of probation
           Part III-Prisons And Prisoners   
           Chapter 305-Commitment And Transfer
  4082   Commitment to Attorney General; residential treatment 
         centers; extension of limits of confinement; work furlough

Title 21-Food And Drugs
      Chapter 13-Drug Abuse Prevention And Control
           Subchapter I-Control And Enforcement
                Part D-Offenses And Penalties
  862    Denial of Federal benefits to drug traffickers and possessors

Title 28-Judiciary And Judicial Procedure
      Part VI-Particular Proceedings
           Chapter 176-Federal Debt Collection Procedure
                Subchapter A-Definitions And General Provisions
  3014   Exempt property
                Subchapter D-Fraudulent Transfers Involving Debts
  3301   Definitions

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 6A-Public Health Service
           Subchapter II-General Powers And Duties
                Part J-Prevention And Control Of Injuries
  280b-1aInterpersonal violence within families and among 
         acquaintances
      Chapter 7-Social Security   
           Subchapter II-Federal Old-Age, Survivors, And Disability 
           Insurance Benefits
  408    Penalties
           Subchapter XI-General Provisions, Peer Review, And 
           Administrative Simplification 
                Part A-General Provisions  
  1307   Penalty for fraud
           Subchapter XVI-Supplemental Security Income For Aged, 
           Blind, And Disabled
                Part B-Procedural And General Provisions
  1383a  Fraudulent acts; penalties; restitution
      Chapter 21A-Privacy Protection 
           Subchapter II-Attorney General Guidelines
  2000aa-11 Guidelines for Federal officers and employees
      Chapter 42-Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation 
           Subchapter II-Civil Commitment Of Persons Not Charged With 
           Any Criminal Offense
  3411   Definitions
      Chapter 46-Justice System Improvement
           Subchapter V-Bureau Of Justice Assistance Grant Programs
                Part A-Drug Control And System Improvement Grant 
                Program
  3751   Description of drug control and system improvement grant 
         program
		   Subchapter XII-H-Grants To Combat Violent Crimes
		   Against Women
  3796gg-1 State grants
  3796gg-2 Definitions
           Subchapter XII-I-Grants To Encourage Arrest Policies
  3796hh Grants
  3796hh-4 Definitions
      Chapter 110-Family Violence Prevention And Services 
  10402  State grants authorized
  10408  Definitions
  10415  Model State leadership grants for domestic violence 
         intervention
      Chapter 112-Victim Compensation And Assistance
  10602  Crime victim compensation
  10603  Crime victim assistance
  10607  Services to victims
      Chapter 113-State Justice Institute
  10701  Definitions
      Chapter 136-Violent Crime Control And Law Enforcement
           Subchapter II-Crime Prevention
                Part B-Local Crime Prevention Block Grant Program
  13751  Payments to local governments
           Subchapter III-Violence Against Women
                Part D-Equal Justice For Women In The Courts Act
                     Subpart 1-Education And Training For Judges And 
                     Court Personnel In State Courts
  13992  Training provided by grants
                Part E-Violence Against Women Act Improvements
  14014  Report on confidentiality of addresses for victims of 
         domestic violence
           Subchapter XII-Presidential Summit On Violence And National 
           Commission On Crime Prevention And Control
  14194  Responsibilities of the Commission

Category 11-Loans, Guarantees, and Payments in Agriculture

Title 7-Agriculture
      Chapter 3-Grain Standards
  87f-1  Registration requirements
       Chapter 35-Agricultural Adjustment Act Of 1938 
           Subchapter II-Loans, Parity Payments, Consumer Safeguards, 
           Marketing Quotas, And Marketing Certificates   
                Part A-Definitions, Loans, Parity Payments, And 
                Consumer Safeguards 
  1308 
         Payment limitations: production flexibility contracts, 
         marketing loan gains and deficiencies, contract commodities 
         and oilseeds; regulations
  1308-1 Prevention of creation of entities to qualify as separate 
         persons; payments limited to active farmers
      Chapter 35A-Price Support Of Agricultural Commodities 
           Subchapter III-Nonbasic Agricultural Commodities 
  1446   Price support levels for designated nonbasic agricultural 
         commodities
      Chapter 50-Agricultural Credit   
           Subchapter I-Real Estate Loans
  1922   Persons eligible for loans
           Subchapter II-Operating Loans 
  1941   Persons eligible for loans
           Subchapter III-Emergency Loans  
  1961   Eligibility for loans
           Subchapter IV-Administrative Provisions 
  1991   Definitions
  2000   Homestead protection
  2001   Debt restructuring and loan servicing

Title 15-Commerce And Trade
      Chapter 14A-Aid To Small Business
  636    Additional powers
      Chapter 14B-Small Business Investment Program 
           Subchapter V-Loans To State And Local Development Companies  
  697    Development company debentures

Title 20-Education
      Chapter 28-Higher Education Resources And Student Assistance 
           Subchapter IV-Student Assistance   
                Part B-Federal Family Education Loan Program 
  1071   Statement of purpose; nondiscrimination; and appropriations 
         authorized
  1078-3 Federal consolidation loans
                Part C-William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program  
  1087e  Terms and conditions of loans
                Part E-Need Analysis 
  1087nn Determination of expected family contribution; data elements
  1087oo Family contribution for dependent students  1087ppFamily 
         contribution for independent students without dependents 
         other than a spouse
  1087qq Family contribution for independent students with dependents 
         other than a spouse
  1087ss Simplified needs test
  1087uu-1 Native American students
  1087vv Definitions
           Subchapter V-Educator Recruitment, Retention, And 
           Development   
                Part C-Teacher Scholarships And Fellowships   
                     Subpart 1-Paul Douglas Teacher Scholarships  
  1104g  Exceptions to repayment provisions
           Subchapter IX-Graduate Programs   
                Part E-Faculty Development Fellowship Program
  1134r-5 Exceptions to repayment provisions
       Chapter 57-James Madison Memorial Fellowship Program  
  4506   Recipient's eligibility

Title 38-Veterans' Benefits
      Part III-Readjustment And Related Benefits 
           Chapter 37-Housing And Small Business Loans   
                Subchapter I-General
  3701   Definitions
  3702   Basic entitlement
  3704   Restrictions on loans
                Subchapter II-Loans
  3710   Purchase or construction of homes
  3712   Loans to purchase manufactured homes and lots
                Subchapter III-Administrative Provisions 
  3726   Withholding of payments, benefits, etc.
  3729   Loan fee
       Part IV-General Administrative Provisions 
           Chapter 53-Special Provisions Relating To Benefits
  5302   Waiver of recovery of claims by the United States

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 6A-Public Health Service 
           Subchapter II-General Powers And Duties   
                Part D-Primary Health Care 
                     Subpart II-National Health Service Corps Program 
  254h-1 Facilitation of effective provision of Corps services
                     Subpart III-Scholarship Program And Loan 
                     Repayment Program  
  254l-1 National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program
      Chapter 8A-Slum Clearance, Urban Renewal, And Farm Housing
           Subchapter III-Farm Housing 
  1472   Loans for housing and buildings on adequate farms

Category 12-Federal Natural Resources and Related Laws

Title 16-Conservation
      Chapter 1-National Parks, Military Parks, Monuments, And 
      Seashores
           Subchapter VI-Sequoia And Yosemite National Parks
  45f    Mineral King Valley addition authorized
           Subchapter VII-Redwood National Park   
  79d    Acquisition of lands
           Subchapter X-North Cascades National Park
  90b-2  Owner's retention of right of use and occupancy for 
         agricultural, residential, or commercial purposes for life or 
         term of years; transfer or assignment of right; termination 
         of use and
           Subchapter XVIII-Saratoga National Historical Park
  159g   Acquisition of lands
           Subchapter XIX-Voyageurs National Park       
  160c   Acquisition of improved property
           Subchapter XXIII-Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National 
           Historic Site   
  218    Addition of land
           Subchapter XXV-Jean Lafitte National Historical Park 
                Part A-Generally 
  230b   Owner's retention of right of use and occupancy for 
         residential purposes for life or fixed term of years; 
         election of term; fair market value; transfer, assignment or 
         termination; "improved property" defined
           Subchapter XXVII-Olympic National Park  
  251h   Property retention rights; compensation at fair market value; 
         "improved property" defined
           Subchapter XLIV-Virgin Islands National Park   
  398d   Acquisition of lands, waters, and interests therein
           Subchapter LIV-Everglades National Park  
  410r-3 Acceptance of additional lands; lands acquired as part of 
         park; reimbursement of revolving fund 
           Subchapter LV-Minute Man National Historical Park  
  410t   Acquisition and transfer of lands; private owner's retention 
         of right of use and occupancy
  410x-1 Residential occupancy
           Subchapter LVIII-Valley Forge National Historical Park 
  410aa-1 Lands and property
           Subchapter LIX-C-San Antonio Missions National Historical 
           Park   
  410ee  Establishment
           Subchapter LIX-D-Channel Islands National Park
  410ff-1 Acquisition of property
           Subchapter LIX-T-Marsh-Billings National Historical Park  
  410vv-6 Reservation of use and occupancy
           Subchapter LX-National Military Parks  
  425m   Retained rights
  426n   Boundary revision of Stones River National Battlefield
  429b-2 Retention of right of use and occupation of improved property 
         by owner
           Subchapter LXI-National And International Monuments And 
           Memorials  
  433k   Whitman Mission National Historic Site; acquisition of land; 
         establishment, supervision and maintenance
  441l   Exchange of lands; transfer from Federal agency to 
         administrative jurisdiction of Secretary; terms and 
         conditions of purchase
  450e-1 Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
           Subchapter LXIII-National Seashore Recreational Areas 
  459b-3 Acquisition by condemnation
  459c-5 Owner's reservation of right of use and occupancy for fixed 
         term of years or life
  459e-1 Acquisition of property
  459g-1 Acquisition of property
  459h-1 Acquisition of property
  459i-3 Acquisition of property
  459j-2 Improved property
           Subchapter LXIX-Outdoor Recreation Programs
                Part B-Land And Water Conservation Fund   
  460l-6a Admission and special recreation use fees
           Subchapter LXX-Ozark National Scenic Riverways  
  460m-2 Reservation of use and occupancy of improved property for 
         noncommercial residential purposes; term; valuation
           Subchapter LXXI-Buffalo National River 
  460m-9 Acquisition of lands and waters
           Subchapter LXXI-A-New River Gorge National River  
  460m-16 Acquisition of property
           Subchapter LXXIII-Delaware Water Gap National Recreation 
           Area
  460o-1 Acquisition of lands
           Subchapter LXXV-Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National 
           Recreation Area
  460q-1 Acquisition of property
           Subchapter LXXIX-Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore
  460u-5 Owner's retention of right of use and occupancy for 
         residential purposes
           Subchapter LXXXI-Apostle Islands National Lakeshore 
  460w-3 Retention rights of owners of improved property
           Subchapter LXXXII-Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore
  460x-9 Right of retention of residential use in improved lands
           Subchapter LXXXIV-Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area  
  460z-6 Land acquisition in recreation area; donation and exchange; 
         railway right-of-way; retention rights of owners of improved 
         property
           Subchapter LXXXVI-Golden Gate National Recreation Area 
  460bb-2 Acquisition policy
           Subchapter LXXXIX-Big South Fork National River And 
           Recreation Area  
  460ee  Establishment
           Subchapter XC-Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area
  460ff-1Acquisition of land
           Subchapter XCII-Chickasaw National Recreation Area 
  460hh-1Acquisition of property
           Subchapter XCIII-Chattahoochee River National Recreation 
           Area
  460ii-1Acquisition of property
           Subchapter XCV-Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation 
           Area
  460kk  Establishment
           Subchapter CXII-Grand Island National Recreation Area 
  460aaa-2 Administration
  460aaa-3 Acquisition
      Chapter 6-Game And Bird Preserves; Protection 
  698b   Right of use and occupancy of improved property on Big 
         Thicket Preserve
  698h   Right of use and occupancy of improved property on Big 
         Cypress Preserve and Addition
      Chapter 28-Wild And Scenic Rivers 
  1277   Land acquisition
      Chapter 31-Marine Mammal Protection
           Subchapter II-Conservation And Protection Of Marine Mammals
  1379   Transfer of management authority
      Chapter 51-Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation
           Subchapter II-Subsistence Management And Use 
  3113   Definitions
           Subchapter VI-Administrative Provisions   
  3192   Land acquisition authority
      Chapter 59-Wetlands Resources
           Subchapter II-Revenues For Refuge Operations And The 
           Migratory Bird Conservation Fund 
  3911   Sale of admission permit at certain refuge units

Title 30-Mineral Lands And Mining
      Chapter 2-Mineral Lands And Regulations In General
  28f    Fee
      Chapter 25-Surface Mining Control And Reclamation 
           Subchapter VII-Administrative And Miscellaneous Provisions  
  1304   Surface owner protection

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 24-Disposal Of Atomic Energy Communities   
           Subchapter I-General Provisions 
  2304   Definitions
           Subchapter III-Classification Of Property And Priorities
  2333   Transfer of priorities

Title 43-Public Lands
      Chapter 12-Reclamation And Irrigation Of Lands By Federal 
      Government   
           Subchapter I-A-Reclamation Reform   
  390bb  Definitions
      Chapter 12-Reclamation And Irrigation Of Lands By
	  Federal Government   
           Subchapter V-Administration Of Existing Projects 
  423h   Delivery of water to excess lands upon death of spouse
           Subchapter VII-Exchange And Amendment Of Farm Units  
  451a   Persons eligible for benefits
  451c   Cancellation of charges or liens; credits
      Chapter 33-Alaska Native Claims Settlement  
  1606   Regional Corporations

Category 13-Miscellaneous Laws

Title 5-Government Organization And Employees
      Part I-The Agencies Generally
           Chapter 5-Administrative Procedure
                Subchapter II-Administrative Procedure
  552a   Records maintained on individuals
      Part III-Employees
           Subpart F-Labor-Management And Employee Relations
                Chapter 71-Labor-Management Relations
                     Subchapter I-General Provisions
  7103   Definitions; application
                     Subchapter II-Rights And Duties Of Agencies And 
                     Labor Organizations. 
  7116   Unfair labor practices
                Chapter 72-Antidiscrimination; Right To Petition 
                Congress
                     Subchapter I-Antidiscrimination In Employment
  7202   Marital status
  7204   Other prohibitions

Title 10-Armed Forces
      Subtitle A-General Military Law
           Part II-Personnel
                Chapter 88-Military Family Programs And Military Child 
                Care
                     Subchapter I-Military Family Programs
  1787   Reporting of child abuse

Title 12-Banks And Banking
      Chapter 31-National Consumer Cooperative Bank
           Subchapter I-Establishment And Operation
  3015   Eligibility Of cooperatives
      Chapter 32-Foreign Bank Participation In Domestic Markets
  3106a  Compliance With State And Federal Laws

Title 15-Commerce And Trade
      Chapter 14A-Aid To Small Business
  633    Small Business Administration
      Chapter 41-Consumer Credit Protection
           Subchapter IV-Equal Credit Opportunity
  1691   Scope of prohibition

Title 20-Education
      Chapter 44-Vocational Education
           Subchapter I-Vocational Education Assistance To The States
                Part B-State Organizational And Planning 
                Responsibilities                             
  2323   State plans
           Subchapter V-General Provisions
                Part C-Definitions
  2471   Definitions
      Chapter 70-Strengthening And Improvement Of Elementary And
      Secondary Schools
           Subchapter I-Helping Disadvantaged Children Meet High 
           Standards
                Part C-Education Of Migratory Children
  6399   Definitions

Title 22-Foreign Relations And Intercourse
      Chapter 52-Foreign Service
           Subchapter I-General Provisions
  3901   Congressional findings and objectives
  3905   Personnel actions
           Subchapter X-Labor-Management Relations
  4102   Definitions
  4115   Unfair labor practices
      Chapter 58-Diplomatic Security
           Subchapter IV-Diplomatic Security Program
  4860   Reimbursement of Department of the Treasury

Title 24-Hospitals And Asylums
      Chapter 9-Hospitalization Of Mentally Ill Nationals Returned 
      From Foreign Countries
  325    Examination of persons admitted
  326    Release of patient

Title 26-Internal Revenue Code
      Subtitle H-Financing Of Presidential Election Campaigns
           Chapter 95-Presidential Election Campaign Fund
  9004   Entitlement of eligible candidates to payments
           Chapter 96-Presidential Primary Matching Payment Account
  9035   Qualified campaign expense limitations

Title 31-Money And Finance
      Subtitle I-General
           Chapter 7-General Accounting Office
                Subchapter III-Personnel
  732    Personnel management system

Title 36-Patriotic Societies And Observances
      Chapter 3B-Marine Corps League
  57a    Purposes of corporation
      Chapter 7A-Veterans Of Foreign Wars Of The United States
  113    Purposes of corporation
      Chapter 9-National Observances
  169j-3 Members of Commission
      Chapter 27-Legion Of Valor Of The United States Of America
  633    Principles and objects of corporation
      Chapter 32-Veterans Of World War I Of The United States Of 
      America
  763    Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 33-The Congressional Medal Of Honor Society Of
	  The United States Of America
  793    Objects and purposes of corporation
  799    Distribution of income or assets to members; loans
      Chapter 35-Blinded Veterans Association
  859    Distribution of income or assets to members; loans
      Chapter 39-Agricultural Hall Of Fame
  977    Governing body
      Chapter 40-National Woman's Relief Corps, Auxiliary To The Grand 
      Army
      Of The Republic
  1005   Membership
      Chapter 42-Audits Of Federally Chartered Corporations
  1101   "Private corporations established under Federal law" defined
      Chapter 48-Gold Star Wives Of America
  1601   Charter
  1602   Powers of corporation
      Chapter 53-American Ex-Prisoners Of War
  2103   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 58-Catholic War Veterans Of The United States Of 
      America, Inc.
  2603   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 60-Navy Wives Clubs Of America
  2801   Recognition as corporation and grant of Federal charter
  2802   Powers of corporation
  2803   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 71-Army And Navy Union Of The United States
  3903   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 72-Non-Commissioned Officers Association Of The United 
      States Of America, Inc.
  4003   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 75-Aviation Hall Of Fame
  4307   Board of trustees
  4309   Board of nominations; composition; duties
      Chapter 83-Retired Enlisted Association, Incorporated
  5103   Objects and purposes of corporation
      Chapter 84-National Fallen Firefighters Foundation
  5201   Establishment and purposes of Foundation

Title 42-The Public Health And Welfare
      Chapter 6A-Public Health Service
           Subchapter II-General Powers And Duties
                Part L-Services For Children Of Substance Abusers
  280d   Grants for services for children of substance abusers
           Subchapter XVIII-Adolescent Family Life Demonstration 
           Projects
  300z   Findings and purposes
           Subchapter XXIV-HIV Health Care Services Program
                Part B-Care Grant Program
                     Subpart I-General Grant Provisions
  300ff-27a Spousal notification
                Part C-Early Intervention Services
                     Subpart I-Formula Grants For States
  300ff-48 Testing and other early intervention services for State 
         prisoners
      Chapter 13-School Lunch Programs
  1766   Child and adult care food program
      Chapter 21-Civil Rights
           Subchapter I-Generally
  1986   Action for neglect to prevent
      Chapter 35-Programs For Older Americans
           Subchapter III-Grants For State And Community Programs On 
           Aging
                Part A-General Provisions
  3027   State plans
           Subchapter IV-Training, Research, And Discretionary 
           Projects
           And Programs
                Part B-Research, Demonstrations, And Other Activities
  3035a  Demonstration projects
      Chapter 62-Intergovernmental Personnel Program
           Subchapter II-Strengthening State And Local Personnel 
           Administration
  4728   Transfer of functions
      Chapter 94-Low-Income Energy Assistance
           Subchapter II-Low-Income Home Energy Assistance
  8624   Applications and requirements
      Chapter 105-Community Services Programs
           Subchapter II-B-Child Care And Development Block Grant
  9858n  Definitions
      Chapter 120-Enterprise Zone Development
  11504  Waiver or modification of housing and community development 
         rules in enterprise zones
      Chapter 129-National And Community Service
           Subchapter I-National And Community Service State Grant 
           Program
                Division F-Administrative Provisions
  12639  Evaluation

Title 46-Shipping
      Subtitle II-Vessels And Seamen
           Part G-Merchant Seamen Protection And Relief
                Chapter 113-Official Logbooks
  11301  Logbook and entry requirements

Title 46-Appendix
      Chapter 21-Death On The High Seas By Wrongful Act
  761    Right of action; where and by whom brought

Title 48-Territories And Insular Possessions
      Chapter 4-Puerto Rico
           Subchapter I-General Provisions
  736    Puerto Rican law modified
      Chapter 8-Guano Islands
  1413   Completion of proof on death of discoverer
  1415   Restrictions upon exportation
  1418   Employment of land and naval forces in protection of rights
      Chapter 12-The Virgin Islands
           Subchapter II-Bill Of Rights
  1561   Rights and prohibitions

Title 50-War And National Defense
Title 50-Appendix
      Trading With The Enemy Act Of 1917
  9      Claims to property transferred to custodian; notice of claim; 
         filing; return of property; suits to recover; sale of claimed 
         property in time of war or during national emergency
  31     "Member of the former ruling family" defined
  32     Return of property
      Military Selective Service Act; June 24, 1948
  456    Deferments and exemptions from training and service
      Restitution For World War II Internment Of Japanese-Americans 
      And Aleuts
          Title I-United States Citizens Of Japanese Ancestry And 
          Resident
          Japanese Aliens
  1989b-4 Restitution
  1989b-7 Definitions
      War Claims Act; July 3, 1948
          Title I
  2004   Internees
  2005   Prisoners of war
  2015   Retention benefits to merchant seamen
  2016   Philippines
          Title II
  2017a  Claims authorized
  2017c  Nationality of claimants

Organic Laws Of The United States
      Ordinance Of 1787: The Northwest Territorial Government
______________________________________

1. Public Law 104-199, 110 Stat. 2419.

2. For example, our search for the word stem "marr," designed to 
capture words such as "marriage" and "marry," also produced references 
to laws mentioning bone marrow transplants, the city of Marrakesh, and 
proper names containing the letters "marr."

3. One such limitation results from the use of statutory definitions.  
Our search for occurrences of "spouse" would find a law defining 
"relative," for purposes of a program, as including a spouse. It 
would not find the laws in that program that, by referring to 
"relative," apply to a spouse. A search for "relative" does not solve 
this problem. That word is used commonly in senses unrelated to 
marital status (as are other terms such as "single"). A computer 
cannot distinguish between these senses; a lawyer would have to 
examine each occurrence of "relative" to determine whether it refers 
to marital status.

4. The order of the categories is not significant, except that the 
first four are those in which marital status is most pervasive, and 
are the largest.

   1. The recently enacted welfare reform bill, the Personal 
   Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 
   greatly affected some of the provisions in this category, but the 
   changes are not generally effective until July 1997. Where both the 
   old and new provisions appear in the United States Code, we have 
   included both-the ones in effect until July 1997 and the ones that 
   take effect thereafter-in Enclosure II.

   2. Under welfare reform, AFDC will be replaced by Temporary Assistance 
   for Needy Families in July 1997. States will have the option of 
   terminating Medicaid benefits for individuals who refuse to work.

   3. GAO/GGD-96-175, September 3, 1996.

   4. The laws in this category dealing with marriage that use the terms 
   "Indian" and "white" are more than 100 years old, and have not been 
   amended since their enactment in 1888.





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